The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on the association between an extended measurement of unhealthy lifestyle factors and health outcomes: a prospective analysis of the UK Biobank cohort

Foster, H. M.E. , Celis-Morales, C. A. , Nicholl, B. I. , Petermann, F., Pell, J. P. , Gill, J. M.R. , O'Donnell, C. A. and Mair, F. S. (2018) The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on the association between an extended measurement of unhealthy lifestyle factors and health outcomes: a prospective analysis of the UK Biobank cohort. Lancet Public Health, (doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30200-7) (Early Online Publication)

Foster, H. M.E. , Celis-Morales, C. A. , Nicholl, B. I. , Petermann, F., Pell, J. P. , Gill, J. M.R. , O'Donnell, C. A. and Mair, F. S. (2018) The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on the association between an extended measurement of unhealthy lifestyle factors and health outcomes: a prospective analysis of the UK Biobank cohort. Lancet Public Health, (doi:10.1016/S2468-2667(18)30200-7) (Early Online Publication)

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Abstract

Background: Combinations of lifestyle factors interact to increase mortality. Combinations of traditional factors such as smoking and alcohol are well described, but the additional effects of emerging factors such as television viewing time are not. The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on these extended lifestyle risks also remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether deprivation modifies the association between an extended score of lifestyle-related risk factors and health outcomes. Methods: Data for this prospective analysis were sourced from the UK Biobank, a prospective population-based cohort study. We assigned all participants an extended lifestyle score, with 1 point for each unhealthy lifestyle factor (incorporating sleep duration and high television viewing time, in addition to smoking, excessive alcohol, poor diet [low intake of oily fish or fruits and vegetables, and high intake of red meat or processed meats], and low physical activity), categorised as most healthy (score 0–2), moderately healthy (score 3–5), or least healthy (score 6–9). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between lifestyle score and health outcomes (all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease mortality and incidence), and whether this association was modified by deprivation. All analyses were landmark analyses, in which participants were excluded if they had an event (death or cardiovascular disease event) within 2 years of recruitment. Participants with non-communicable diseases (except hypertension) and missing covariate data were excluded from analyses. Participants were also excluded if they reported implausible values for physical activity, sleep duration, and total screen time. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, month of assessment, history of hypertension, systolic blood pressure, medication for hypercholesterolaemia or hypertension, and body-mass index categories. Findings: 328 594 participants aged 40–69 years were included in the study, with a mean follow-up period of 4·9 years (SD 0·83) after the landmark period for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality, and 4·1 years (0·81) for cardiovascular disease incidence. In the least deprived quintile, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) in the least healthy lifestyle category, compared with the most healthy category, was 1·65 (95% CI 1·25–2·19) for all-cause mortality, 1·93 (1·16–3·20) for cardiovascular disease mortality, and 1·29 (1·10–1·52) for cardiovascular disease incidence. Equivalent HRs in the most deprived quintile were 2·47 (95% CI 2·04–3·00), 3·36 (2·36–4·76), and 1·41 (1·25–1·60), respectively. The HR for trend for one increment change towards least healthy in the least deprived quintile compared with that in the most deprived quintile was 1·25 (95% CI 1·12–1·39) versus 1·55 (1·40–1·70) for all-cause mortality, 1·30 (1·05–1·61) versus 1·83 (1·54–2·18) for cardiovascular disease mortality, and 1·10 (1·04–1·17) versus 1·16 (1·09–1·23) for cardiovascular disease incidence. A significant interaction was found between lifestyle and deprivation for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality (both pinteraction<0·0001), but not for cardiovascular disease incidence (pinteraction=0·11). Interpretation: Wide combinations of lifestyle factors are associated with disproportionate harm in deprived populations. Social and fiscal policies that reduce poverty are needed alongside public health and individual-level interventions that address a wider range of lifestyle factors in areas of deprivation.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Early Online Publication
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Celis, Dr Carlos and Gill, Professor Jason and Foster, Dr Hamish and Pell, Professor Jill and Petermann, Mrs Fanny and Mair, Professor Frances and Nicholl, Dr Barbara and O'Donnell, Professor Catherine
Authors: Foster, H. M.E., Celis-Morales, C. A., Nicholl, B. I., Petermann, F., Pell, J. P., Gill, J. M.R., O'Donnell, C. A., and Mair, F. S.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > General Practice and Primary Care
Journal Name:Lancet Public Health
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2468-2667
ISSN (Online):2468-2667
Published Online:20 November 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Authors
First Published:First published in Lancet Public Health 2018
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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