Estimating the number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in 2014: a modelling study

Temkin, E., Fallach, N., Almagor, J. , Gladstone, B. P., Tacconelli, E. and Carmeli, Y. (2018) Estimating the number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in 2014: a modelling study. Lancet Global Health, 6(9), e969-e979. (doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30278-X) (PMID:30103998)

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Abstract

Background: The number of infections caused by resistant organisms is largely unknown. We estimated the number of infections worldwide that are caused by the WHO priority pathogens third-generation cephalosporin-resistant and carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: We calculated a uniform weighted mean incidence of serious infections caused by antibiotic-susceptible E coli and K pneumoniae using data from 17 countries. Using this uniform incidence, as well as population sizes and country-specific resistance levels, we estimated the number of infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant and carbapenem-resistant E coli and K pneumoniae in 193 countries in 2014. We also calculated interval estimates derived from changing the fixed incidence of susceptible infections to 1 SD below and above the weighted mean. We compared an additive model with combination models in which resistant infections were replaced by susceptible infections. We distinguished between higher-certainty regions (those with good-quality data sources for resistance levels and resistance ≤30%), moderate-certainty regions (those with good-quality data sources for resistance levels and including some countries with resistance >30%), and low-certainty regions (those in which good-quality data sources for resistance levels were unavailable for countries comprising at least 20% of the region's population, regardless of resistance level). Findings: Using the additive model, we estimated that third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E coli and K pneumoniae caused 6·4 million (interval estimate 3·5–9·2) bloodstream infections and 50·1 million (27·5–72·8) serious infections in 2014; estimates were 5·5 million (3·0–7·9) bloodstream infections and 43·1 million (23·6–62·2) serious infections in the 25% replacement model, 4·6 million (2·5–6·6) bloodstream infections and 36·0 million (19·7–52·2) serious infections in the 50% replacement model, and 3·7 million (2·0–5·3) bloodstream infections and 28·9 million (15·8–41·9) serious infections in the 75% replacement model. Carbapenem-resistant strains caused 0·5 million (0·3–0·7) bloodstream infections and 3·1 million (1·8–4·5) serious infections based on the additive model, 0·5 million (0·3–0·7) bloodstream infections and 3·0 million (1·7–4·3) serious infections based on the 25% replacement model, 0·4 million (0·2–0·6) bloodstream infections and 2·8 million (1·6–4·1) serious infections based on the 50% replacement model, and 0·4 million (0·2–0·6) bloodstream infections and 2·7 million (1·5–3·8) serious infections based on the 75% replacement model. Interpretation: To our knowledge, this study is the first to report estimates of the global number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens. Uncertainty stems from scant data on resistance levels from low-income and middle-income countries and insufficient knowledge regarding resistance dynamics when resistance is high. Funding: Innovative Medicines Initiative.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:The research leading to these results has received support from the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking under grant agreement number 115618 (Driving re-investment in research and development and responsible antibiotic use [DRIVE-AB]), resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations companies’ in kind contribution.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Almagor, Dr Jonatan
Authors: Temkin, E., Fallach, N., Almagor, J., Gladstone, B. P., Tacconelli, E., and Carmeli, Y.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > MRC/CSO Unit
Journal Name:Lancet Global Health
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2214-109X
ISSN (Online):2214-109X
Published Online:10 August 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Authors
First Published:First published in Lancet Global Health 6(9): e969-e979
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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