GW170817: Measurements of neutron star radii and equation of state

Abbott, B.P. et al. (2018) GW170817: Measurements of neutron star radii and equation of state. Physical Review Letters, 121, 161101. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.161101)

Abbott, B.P. et al. (2018) GW170817: Measurements of neutron star radii and equation of state. Physical Review Letters, 121, 161101. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.161101)

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Publisher's URL: https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.161101

Abstract

On 17 August 2017, the LIGO and Virgo observatories made the first direct detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of a neutron star binary system. The detection of this gravitational-wave signal, GW170817, offers a novel opportunity to directly probe the properties of matter at the extreme conditions found in the interior of these stars. The initial, minimal-assumption analysis of the LIGO and Virgo data placed constraints on the tidal effects of the coalescing bodies, which were then translated to constraints on neutron star radii. Here, we expand upon previous analyses by working under the hypothesis that both bodies were neutron stars that are described by the same equation of state and have spins within the range observed in Galactic binary neutron stars. Our analysis employs two methods: the use of equation-of-state-insensitive relations between various macroscopic properties of the neutron stars and the use of an efficient parametrization of the defining function p(ρ) of the equation of state itself. From the LIGO and Virgo data alone and the first method, we measure the two neutron star radii as R1 = 10.8+2.0-1.7 km for the heavier star and R2 = 10.7+2.1-1.5 km for the lighter star at the 90 credible level. If we additionally require that the equation of state supports neutron stars with masses larger than 1.97 M☉ as required from electromagnetic observations and employ the equation-of-state parametrization, we further constrain R1 = 11.9+1.4-1.4 km and R2 = 11.9+1.4-1.4 km at the 90 credible level. Finally, we obtain constraints on p(ρ) at supranuclear densities, with pressure at twice nuclear saturation density measured at 3.5+2.7-1.7 × 1034 dyn/cm2 at the 90 level.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Gravitational waves Nuclear matter neutron stars
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:TOLAND, Karl and Grant, Mr Alastair and Pearlstone, Brynley and Robie, Raymond and Messenger, Dr Christopher and Masso Reid, Ms Mariela and Isa, Hafizah Noor Binti and Bell, Dr Angus and Pascucci, Daniela and Hammond, Professor Giles and Barr, Dr Bryan and Sorazu Lucio, Dr Borja and Lee, Kyung Ha and Keitel, David and Barclay, Sheena Elaine and Gabbard, Hunter Arthur and Steinlechner, Dr Jessica and Veitch, Dr John and Houston, Ewan and Phelps, Margot H and Heng, Professor Ik Siong and Dupej, Peter and van Veggel, Dr Anna-Maria and Zhang, Teng and Graef, Dr Christian and Hendry, Professor Martin and Scott, Dr Jamie and Mangano, Valentina and Rowan, Professor Sheila and Martin, Dr Iain and Robertson, Professor Norna and Tornasi, Zeno and SPENCER, Andrew and Cumming, Dr Alan and WILLIAMS, DANIEL and Cunningham, Dr William and Woan, Professor Graham and Tait, Simon and WRIGHT, Jennifer and Steinlechner, Dr Sebastian and Hough, Professor James and Bayley, Joseph and Huttner, Dr Sabina and FLETCHER, MARK and Strain, Professor Kenneth and Jones, Mr Russell and Hennig, Jan Simon and Haughian, Dr Karen and HART, Martin and Chan, Man Leong and Pitkin, Dr Matthew and Murray, Dr Peter
Authors: Abbott, B.P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T.D., Acernese, F., Ackley, K., Adams, C., Adams, T., Addesso, P., Adhikari, R.X., Adya, V.B., Affeldt, C., Agarwal, B., Agathos, M., Agatsuma, K., Aggarwal, N., Aguiar, O.D., Aiello, L., Ain, A., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Allen, G., Allocca, A., Aloy, M.A., Altin, P.A., Amato, A., Ananyeva, A., Anderson, S.B., Anderson, W.G., Angelova, S.V., Antier, S., Appert, S., Arai, K., Araya, M.C., Areeda, J.S., Arène, M., Arnaud, N., Arun, K.G., Ascenzi, S., Ashton, G., Ast, M., Aston, S.M., Astone, P., Atallah, D.V., Aubin, F., Aufmuth, P., Aulbert, C., AultONeal, K., Austin, C., Avila-Alvarez, A., Babak, S., Bacon, P., Badaracco, F., Bader, M.K.M., Bae, S., Baker, P.T., Baldaccini, F., Ballardin, G., Ballmer, S.W., Banagiri, S., Barayoga, J.C., Barclay, S.E., Barish, B.C., Barker, D., Barkett, K., Barnum, S., Barone, F., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barsuglia, M., Barta, D., Bartlett, J., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Basti, A., Batch, J.C., Bawaj, M., Bayley, J.C., Bazzan, M., Bécsy, B., Beer, C., Bejger, M., Belahcene, I., Bell, A.S., Beniwal, D., Bensch, M., Berger, B.K., Bergmann, G., Bernuzzi, S., Bero, J. J., Berry, C.P.L., Bersanetti, D., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Bhandare, R., Bilenko, I.A., Bilgili, S.A., Billingsley, G., Billman, C.R., Birch, J., Birney, R., Birnholtz, O., Biscans, S., Biscoveanu, S., Bisht, A., Bitossi, M., Bizouard, M.A., Blackburn, J.K., Blackman, J., Blair, C.D., Blair, D.G., Blair, R.M., Bloemen, S., Bock, O., Bode, N., Boer, M., Boetzel, Y., Bogaert, G., Bohe, A., Bondu, F., Bonilla, E., Bonnand, R., Booker, P., Boom, B.A., Booth, C.D., Bork, R., Boschi, V., Bose, S., Bossie, K., Bossilkov, V., Bosveld, J., Bouffanais, Y., Bozzi, A., Bradaschia, C., Brady, P.R., Bramley, A., Branchesi, M., Brau, J.E., Briant, T., Brighenti, F., Brillet, A., Brinkmann, M., Brisson, V., Brockill, P., Brooks, A.F., Brown, D.D., Brunett, S., Buchanan, C.C., Buikema, A., Bulik, T., Bulten, H.J., Buonanno, A., Buskulic, D., Buy, C., Byer, R.L., Cabero, M., Cadonati, L., Cagnoli, G., Cahillane, C., Calderón Bustillo, J., Callister, T.A., Calloni, E., Camp, J.B., Canepa, M., Canizares, P., Cannon, K.C., Cao, H., Cao, J., Capano, C.D., Capocasa, E., Carbognani, F., Caride, S., Carney, M.F., Carullo, G., Casanueva Diaz, J., Casentini, C., Caudill, S., Cavaglià, M., Cavalier, F., Cavalieri, R., Cella, G., Cepeda, C.B., Cerdá-Durán, P., Cerretani, G., Cesarini, E., Chaibi, O., Chamberlin, S.J., Chan, M., Chao, S., Charlton, P., Chase, E., Chassande-Mottin, E., Chatterjee, D., Chatziioannou, K., Cheeseboro, B.D., Chen, H.Y., Chen, X., Chen, Y., Cheng, H.-P., Chia, H.Y., Chincarini, A., Chiummo, A., Chmiel, T., Cho, H.S., Cho, M., Chow, J.H., Christensen, N., Chu, Q., Chua, A.J.K., Chua, S., Chung, K.W., Chung, S., Ciani, G., Ciobanu, A.A., Ciolfi, R., Cipriano, F., Cirelli, C.E., Cirone, A., Clara, F., Clark, J.A., Clearwater, P., Cleva, F., Cocchieri, C., Coccia, E., Cohadon, P.-F., Cohen, D., Colla, A., Collette, C.G., Collins, C., Cominsky, L.R., Constancio, M., Conti, L., Cooper, S.J., Corban, P., Corbitt, T.R., Cordero-Carrión, I., Corley, K.R., Cornish, N., Corsi, A., Cortese, S., Costa, C.A., Cotesta, R., Coughlin, M.W., Coughlin, S.B., Coulon, J.-P., Countryman, S.T., Couvares, P., Covas, P.B., Cowan, E.E., Coward, D.M., Cowart, M.J., Coyne, D.C., Coyne, R., Creighton, J.D.E., Creighton, T.D., Cripe, J., Crowder, S.G., Cullen, T.J., Cumming, A., Cunningham, L., Cuoco, E., Canton, T.D., Dálya, G., Danilishin, S.L., D'Antonio, S., Danzmann, K., Dasgupta, A., Da Silva Costa, C.F., Dattilo, V., Dave, I., Davier, M., Davis, D., Daw, E.J., Day, B., DeBra, D., Deenadayalan, M., Degallaix, J., De Laurentis, M., Deléglise, S., Del Pozzo, W., Demos, N., Denker, T., Dent, T., De Pietri, R., Derby, J., Dergachev, V., De Rosa, R., De Rossi, C., DeSalvo, R., de Varona, O., Dhurandhar, S., Daz, M.C., Dietrich, T., Di Fiore, L., Di Giovanni, M., Di Girolamo, T., Di Lieto, A., Ding, B., Di Pace, S., Di Palma, I., Di Renzo, F., Dmitriev, A., Doctor, Z., Dolique, V., Donovan, F., Dooley, K.L., Doravari, S., Dorrington, I., Dovale Álvarez, M., Downes, T.P., Drago, M., Dreissigacker, C., Driggers, J.C., Du, Z., Dupej, P., Dwyer, S.E., Easter, P.J., Edo, T.B., Edwards, M.C., Effler, A., Eggenstein, H.-B., Ehrens, P., Eichholz, J., Eikenberry, S.S., Eisenmann, M., Eisenstein, R.A., Essick, R.C., Estelles, H., Estevez, D., Etienne, Z.B., Etzel, T., Evans, M., Evans, T.M., Fafone, V., Fair, H., Fairhurst, S., Fan, X., Farinon, S., Farr, B., Farr, W.M., Fauchon-Jones, E. 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Subjects:Q Science > QB Astronomy
Q Science > QC Physics
College/School:College of Science and Engineering
College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Research Group:Institute for Gravitational Research
Journal Name:Physical Review Letters
Journal Abbr.:Phys. Rev. Lett.
Publisher:American Physical Society
ISSN:0031-9007
ISSN (Online):1079-7114
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The American Physical Society
First Published:First published in Physical Review Letters 121:161101
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
713721Investigations in gravitational radiationSheila RowanScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N005422/1S&E P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
713722Investigations in gravitational radiationSheila RowanScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N005422/1S&E P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
713723Investigations in gravitational radiationSheila RowanScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N005422/1S&E P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
569982Proposal for UK Involvement in the Operation of Advanced LIGOKenneth StrainScience & Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N00003X/1P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY