Distribution, diversity and evolution of endogenous retroviruses in perissodactyl genomes

Zhu, H., Gifford, R. and Murcia, P. R. (2018) Distribution, diversity and evolution of endogenous retroviruses in perissodactyl genomes. Journal of Virology, 92(23), e00927-18. (doi: 10.1128/JVI.00927-18) (PMID:30209175) (PMCID:PMC6232481)

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The evolution of mammalian genomes has been shaped by interactions with endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). In this study, we investigated the distribution and diversity of ERVs in the mammalian order Perissodactyla, with a view to understanding their impact on the evolution of modern equids (family Equidae). We characterize the major ERV lineages in the horse genome in terms of their genomic distribution, ancestral genome organization and time of activity. Our results show that subsequent to their ancestral divergence from rhinos and tapirs, equids acquired four novel ERV lineages. We show that two of these proliferated extensively in the lineage leading to modern horses, and one contains loci that are actively transcribed in specific tissues. In addition, we show that the white rhinoceros has resisted germline colonisation by retroviruses for over 54 million years - longer than any other extant mammalian species. The map of equine ERVs that we provide here will be of great utility to future studies aiming to investigate the potential functional roles of equine ERVs, and their impact on equine evolution.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Gifford, Dr Robert and Murcia, Professor Pablo
Authors: Zhu, H., Gifford, R., and Murcia, P. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of Virology
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
ISSN (Online):1098-5514
Published Online:12 September 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology
First Published:First published in Journal of Virology 92(23): e00927-18
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
656341Virus-host interactions in hepatitis C virus infectionJohn McLauchlanMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12014/1MVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH
709011Quinquennial Core FundsMassimo PalmariniMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12014/9MVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH