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The protein CTCF is required for the enhancer blocking activity of vertebrate insulators

Bell, A.C., West, A.G., and Felsenfeld, G. (1999) The protein CTCF is required for the enhancer blocking activity of vertebrate insulators. Cell, 98 (3). pp. 387-396. ISSN 0092-8674 (doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81967-4)

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Abstract

An insulator is a DNA sequence that can act as a barrier to the influences of neighboring cis-acting elements, preventing gene activation, for example, when located between an enhancer and a promoter. We have identified a 42 bp fragment of the chicken beta-globin insulator that is both necessary and sufficient for enhancer blocking activity in human cells. We show that this sequence is the binding site for CTCF, a previously identified eleven-zinc finger DNA-binding protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. CTCF sites are present in all of the vertebrate enhancer-blocking elements we have examined. We suggest that directional enhancer blocking by CTCF is a conserved component of gene regulation in vertebrates.

Item Type:Article
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s):West, Dr Adam
Authors: Bell, A.C., West, A.G., and Felsenfeld, G.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:Cell
ISSN:0092-8674
Published Online:27 September 2000

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