Bell, A.C., West, A.G., and Felsenfeld, G. (1999) The protein CTCF is required for the enhancer blocking activity of vertebrate insulators. Cell, 98(3), pp. 387-396. (doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81967-4)
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An insulator is a DNA sequence that can act as a barrier to the influences of neighboring cis-acting elements, preventing gene activation, for example, when located between an enhancer and a promoter. We have identified a 42 bp fragment of the chicken beta-globin insulator that is both necessary and sufficient for enhancer blocking activity in human cells. We show that this sequence is the binding site for CTCF, a previously identified eleven-zinc finger DNA-binding protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. CTCF sites are present in all of the vertebrate enhancer-blocking elements we have examined. We suggest that directional enhancer blocking by CTCF is a conserved component of gene regulation in vertebrates.
|Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:||West, Dr Adam|
|Authors:||Bell, A.C., West, A.G., and Felsenfeld, G.|
|College/School:||College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences|