Transcriptome assembly and profiling of Candida auris reveals novel insights into biofilm-mediated resistance

Kean, R., Delaney, C., Sherry, L., Borman, A., Johnson, E. M., Richardson, M. D., Rautemaa-Richardson, R., Williams, C. and Ramage, G. (2018) Transcriptome assembly and profiling of Candida auris reveals novel insights into biofilm-mediated resistance. mSphere, 3, e00334-18. (doi:10.1128/mSphere.00334-18) (PMID:29997121) (PMCID:PMC6041501)

Kean, R., Delaney, C., Sherry, L., Borman, A., Johnson, E. M., Richardson, M. D., Rautemaa-Richardson, R., Williams, C. and Ramage, G. (2018) Transcriptome assembly and profiling of Candida auris reveals novel insights into biofilm-mediated resistance. mSphere, 3, e00334-18. (doi:10.1128/mSphere.00334-18) (PMID:29997121) (PMCID:PMC6041501)

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Abstract

Candida auris has emerged as a significant global nosocomial pathogen. This is primarily due to its antifungal resistance profile but also its capacity to form adherent biofilm communities on a range of clinically important substrates. While we have a comprehensive understanding of how other Candida species resist and respond to antifungal challenge within the sessile phenotype, our current understanding of C. auris biofilm-mediated resistance is lacking. In this study, we are the first to perform transcriptomic analysis of temporally developing C. auris biofilms, which were shown to exhibit phase- and antifungal class-dependent resistance profiles. A de novo transcriptome assembly was performed, where sequenced sample reads were assembled into an ~11.5-Mb transcriptome consisting of 5,848 genes. Differential expression (DE) analysis demonstrated that 791 and 464 genes were upregulated in biofilm formation and planktonic cells, respectively, with a minimum 2-fold change. Adhesin-related glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall genes were upregulated at all time points of biofilm formation. As the biofilm developed into intermediate and mature stages, a number of genes encoding efflux pumps were upregulated, including ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters. When we assessed efflux pump activity biochemically, biofilm efflux was greater than that of planktonic cells at 12 and 24 h. When these were inhibited, fluconazole sensitivity was enhanced 4- to 16-fold. This study demonstrates the importance of efflux-mediated resistance within complex C. auris communities and may explain the resistance of C. auris to a range of antimicrobial agents within the hospital environment.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This study has been funded by a research grant in 2017 by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) to L.S.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Delaney, Christopher and Kean, Mr Ryan and Ramage, Professor Gordon and Williams, Dr Craig and Sherry, Dr Leighann
Authors: Kean, R., Delaney, C., Sherry, L., Borman, A., Johnson, E. M., Richardson, M. D., Rautemaa-Richardson, R., Williams, C., and Ramage, G.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Dental School
Journal Name:mSphere
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
ISSN:2379-5042
ISSN (Online):2379-5042
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 Kean et al.
First Published:First published in mSphere 3:e00334-18
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
744671Understanding processes and mechanisms affecting the oral microbiome using OMICs approachesGordon RamageBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/P504567/1SM - DENTAL SCHOOL