Longitudinal 3D assessment of facial asymmetry in unilateral cleft lip and palate

Al-Rudainy, D. , Ju, X., Mehendale, F. V. and Ayoub, A. (2019) Longitudinal 3D assessment of facial asymmetry in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate: Craniofacial Journal, 56(4), pp. 495-501. (doi: 10.1177/1055665618780108) (PMID:29870280)

163693.pdf - Accepted Version



Objective: Longitudinal evaluation of asymmetry of the surgically managed unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) to assess the impact of facial growth on facial appearance. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom Patients: Fifteen UCLP infants. Method: The 3-D facial images were captured before surgery, 4 months after surgery, and at 4-year follow-up using stereophotogrammetry. A generic mesh which is a mathematical facial mask that consists of thousands of points (vertices) was conformed on the generated 3-D images. Using Procustean analysis, an average facial mesh was obtained for each age-group. A mirror image of each average mesh was mathematically obtained for the analysis of facial dysmorphology. Facial asymmetry was assessed by measuring the distances between the corresponding vertices of the original and the mirror copy of the conformed meshes, and this was displayed in color-coded map. Results: There was a clear improvement in the facial asymmetry following the primary repair of cleft lip. Residual asymmetry was detected around the nasolabial region. The nasolabial region was the most asymmetrical region of the face; the philtrum, columella, and the vermillion border of the upper lip showed the maximum asymmetry which was more than 5 mm. Facial growth accentuated the underlying facial asymmetry in 3 directions; the philtrum of the upper lip was deviated toward the scar tissue on the cleft side. The asymmetry of the nose was significantly worse at 4-year follow-up (P < .05). Conclusion: The residual asymmetry following the surgical repair of UCLP was more pronounced at 4 years following surgery. The conformed facial mesh provided a reliable and innovative tool for the comprehensive analysis of facial morphology in UCLP. The study highlights the need of refining the primary repair of the cleft and the potential necessity for further corrective surgery.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Ayoub, Professor Ashraf and Al-Rudainy, Dhelal Hatem Nsaif
Authors: Al-Rudainy, D., Ju, X., Mehendale, F. V., and Ayoub, A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Dental School
Journal Name:Cleft Palate: Craniofacial Journal
Publisher:SAGE Publications
ISSN (Online):1545-1569
Published Online:05 June 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
First Published:First published in Cleft Palate: Craniofacial Journal 56(4): 495-501
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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