Mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, and fluid properties of the Ag-Au epithermal deposit Nová Baňa, Slovakia

Majzlan, J., Berkh, K., Kiefer, S., Koděra, P., Fallick, A. E., Chovan, M., Bakos, F., Biroň, A., Ferenc, Š. and Lexa, J. (2018) Mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, and fluid properties of the Ag-Au epithermal deposit Nová Baňa, Slovakia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 112(1), pp. 1-23. (doi: 10.1007/s00710-017-0516-0)

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In this contribution, we report new data on mineralogy, alteration patterns, geochemistry, fluid properties and source of fluids for the deposit Nová Baňa, one of the smaller epithermal deposits in the Middle Miocene Štiavnica andesite stratovolcano (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Ore veins and the associated rocks were studied in samples from outcrops and old mines, grab samples, and bore holes from the central part of the deposit (ore structures Althandel, Jozef, Jakub, Vavrinec), northern part (Freischurf), SE part (Gupňa) and SW part (Šibeničný vrch). Pervasive hydrothermal alteration transformed the rock-forming minerals into a mixture of adularia and fine-grained quartz, with lesser amount of pyrite, Ti oxides and Fe oxides. This assemblage was further altered to omnipresent interstratified illite/smectite that was used in this study as a geothermometer, corroborating the results from the fluid inclusion work. Ore minerals comprise predominantly pyrite, sphalerite, galena but all sulfides are relatively sparse in the samples studied. Minerals of precious metals are electrum, Ag-tetrahedrite, acanthite, members of the polybasite-pearceite and pyrargyrite-proustite solid solution, and rare miargyrite, Hg-Ag tetrahedrite, and diaphorite. In the central part, we have found also some stibnite. In the SE part of the deposit, acanthite, uytenbogaardtite, and petrovskaite occur and seem to be related to supergene enrichment of the ores. In bulk ore samples, Zn usually dominates over Pb and Cu. The average Ag:Au ratio for the entire deposit is 64:1. The concentrations of precious metals in the grab samples reach maxima of 50 ppm Au and 570 ppm Ag in the SE part and 116 ppm Au and 1110 ppm Ag in the central part of the deposit. Fluid inclusions show signs of trapping of a heterogeneous fluid. In the central, northern and SE parts of the deposit, homogenization temperatures of 190–260 °C and consistently low salinities of <5 wt% NaCl eq were recorded. In the SW part, primary fluid inclusions gave homogenization temperatures of 160–180 °C and similar low salinities. The secondary inclusions, however, show salinities up to 24 wt% NaCl eq., interpreted as fluid boiling almost to dryness. Isotopic composition of quartz and clay minerals is recalculated to fluid composition of −5.6 to −0.6 ‰ δ18Ofluid and −80 to −36 ‰ δDfluid, indicating mixed character of hydrothermal fluids falling between the compositions of magmatic and meteoric waters, with predominance of meteoric waters. Assuming hydrostatic pressure in the fluids, the measured data suggest paleodepths of ore formation of 50–170 m in the SW part of the ore deposit, 130–420 m in the SE and N parts, and a range of 120–470 m for the central part. These observations, comparison with other epithermal deposits in the Central Slovak volcanic field, and additional data from published literature show that Nová Baňa is a low- to intermediate sulfidation epithermal deposit, genetically associated to late rhyolitic volcanic activity in this area.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This study was financially supported by a Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) grant MA 3927/11-1, by grants of VEGA (Vedecká grantová agentúra) 2/0171/08, 2/0162/11 and 1/0560/15, APVV grant 15-0083 and by the project 1506 financed by the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic. Stable isotope work at Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre was supported by funds derived from NERC (Natural Environment Research Council) and the Scottish Universities. The work of A.B. was supported by the Operational Program Research and Development through the projects: Centre of Excellence for Integrated Research of the Earth’s Geosphere (ITMS: 26220120064) and Completion of technical infrastructure for research of geodynamical processes and global changes in Earth‘s history (ITMS: 26210120013), which had been co-financed through the European Regional Development Fund.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Fallick, Professor Anthony
Authors: Majzlan, J., Berkh, K., Kiefer, S., Koděra, P., Fallick, A. E., Chovan, M., Bakos, F., Biroň, A., Ferenc, Š., and Lexa, J.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre
Journal Name:Mineralogy and Petrology
ISSN (Online):1438-1168
Published Online:09 June 2018

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