Substrate recognition by the cell surface palmitoyl transferase DHHC5

Howie, J. et al. (2014) Substrate recognition by the cell surface palmitoyl transferase DHHC5. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(49), pp. 17534-17539. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1413627111) (PMID:25422474) (PMCID:PMC4267385)

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The cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman (PLM) regulates the cardiac sodium pump, activating the pump when phosphorylated and inhibiting it when palmitoylated. Protein palmitoylation, the reversible attachment of a 16 carbon fatty acid to a cysteine thiol, is catalyzed by the Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases. The cell surface palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 regulates a growing number of cellular processes, but relatively few DHHC5 substrates have been identified to date. We examined the expression of DHHC isoforms in ventricular muscle and report that DHHC5 is among the most abundantly expressed DHHCs in the heart and localizes to caveolin-enriched cell surface microdomains. DHHC5 coimmunoprecipitates with PLM in ventricular myocytes and transiently transfected cells. Overexpression and silencing experiments indicate that DHHC5 palmitoylates PLM at two juxtamembrane cysteines, C40 and C42, although C40 is the principal palmitoylation site. PLM interaction with and palmitoylation by DHHC5 is independent of the DHHC5 PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) binding motif, but requires a ∼120 amino acid region of the DHHC5 intracellular C-tail immediately after the fourth transmembrane domain. PLM C42A but not PLM C40A inhibits the Na pump, indicating PLM palmitoylation at C40 but not C42 is required for PLM-mediated inhibition of pump activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate an enzyme–substrate relationship for DHHC5 and PLM and describe a means of substrate recruitment not hitherto described for this acyltransferase. We propose that PLM palmitoylation by DHHC5 promotes phospholipid interactions that inhibit the Na pump.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by British Heart Foundation Grants RG/12/4/29426 (to M. J. Shattock and W.F.) and PG/12/6/29366 (to W.F. and M.L.J.A.).
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Fuller, Dr Will and Howie, Dr Jacqueline
Authors: Howie, J., Reilly, L., Fraser, N. J., Vlachaki Walker, J. M., Wypijewski, K. J., Ashford, M. L. J., Calaghan, S. C., McClafferty, H., Tian, L., Shipston, M. J., Boguslavskyi, A., Shattock, M. J., and Fuller, W.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN (Online):1091-6490
Published Online:24 November 2014

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