Cancer biomarker development from basic science to clinical practice

Ali, A., Ali, Z., Yousafzai, Y. M. and Oien, K. A. (2018) Cancer biomarker development from basic science to clinical practice. Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute, 32(1), pp. 3-8.

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Publisher's URL: https://www.jpmi.org.pk/index.php/jpmi/article/view/2278

Abstract

The amount of published literature on biomarkers has exponentially increased over the last two decades. Cancer biomarkers are molecules that are either part of tumour cells or secreted by tumour cells. Biomarkers can be used for diagnosing cancer (tumour versus normal and differentiation of subtypes), prognosticating patients (progression free survival and overall survival) and predicting response to therapy. However, very few biomarkers are currently used in clinical practice compared to the unprecedented discovery rate. Some of the examples are: carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) for colon cancer; prostate specific antigen (PSA) for prostate; and estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 for breast cancer. Cancer biomarkers passes through a series of phases before they are used in clinical practice. First phase in biomarker development is identification of biomarkers which involve discovery, demonstration and qualification. This is followed by validation phase, which includes verification, prioritisation and initial validation. More large-scale and outcome-oriented validation studies expedite the clinical translation of biomarkers by providing a strong ‘evidence base’. The final phase in biomarker development is the routine clinical use of biomarker. In summary, careful identification of biomarkers and then validation in well-designed retrospective and prospective studies is a systematic strategy for developing clinically useful biomarkers.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Oien, Dr Karin and Yousafzai, Yasar and Ali, Dr Asif
Authors: Ali, A., Ali, Z., Yousafzai, Y. M., and Oien, K. A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute
Publisher:Postgraduate Medical Institute
ISSN:1013-5472
ISSN (Online):1811-9387
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute
First Published:First published in Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute 32(1): 3-8
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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