Heligmosomoides polygyrus venom allergen-like protein-4 (HpVAL-4) is a sterol binding protein

Asojo, O. A., Darwiche, R., Gebremedhin, S., Smant, G., Lozano-Torres, J. L., Drurey, C. , Pollet, J., Maizels, R. M. , Schneiter, R. and Wilbers, R. H.P. (2018) Heligmosomoides polygyrus venom allergen-like protein-4 (HpVAL-4) is a sterol binding protein. International Journal for Parasitology, 48(5), pp. 359-369. (doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2018.01.002) (PMID:29505764) (PMCID:PMC5893428)

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Abstract

Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri is a model parasitic hookworm used to study animal and human helminth diseases. During infection, the parasite releases excretory/secretory products that modulate the immune system of the host. The most abundant protein family in excretory/secretory products comprises the venom allergen-like proteins (VALs), which are members of the SCP/TAPS (sperm-coating protein/Tpx/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1/Sc7) superfamily. There are >30 secreted Heligmosomoides polygyrus VAL proteins (HpVALs) and these proteins are characterised by having either one or two 15 kDa CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP)/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The first known HpVAL structure, HpVAL-4, refined to 1.9 Å is reported. HpVAL-4 was produced as a homogeneously glycosylated protein in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana infiltrated with recombinant plasmids, making this plant expression platform amenable for the production of biological products. The overall topology of HpVAL-4 is a three layered αβα sandwich between a short N-terminal loop and a C-terminal cysteine rich extension. The C-terminal cysteine rich extension has two strands stabilized by two disulfide bonds and superposes well with the previously reported extension from the human hookworm Necator americanus Ancylostoma secreted protein-2 (Na-ASP-2). The N-terminal loop is connected to alpha helix 2 via a disulfide bond previously observed in Na-ASP-2. HpVAL-4 has a central cavity that is more similar to the N-terminal CAP domain of the two CAP Na-ASP-1 from Necator americanus. Unlike Na-ASP-2, mammalian CRISP, and the C-terminal CAP domain of Na-ASP-1, the large central cavity of HpVAL-4 lacks the two histidines required to coordinate divalent cations. HpVAL-4 has both palmitate-binding and sterol-binding cavities and is able to complement the in vivo sterol export phenotype of yeast mutants lacking their endogenous CAP proteins. More studies are required to determine endogenous binding partners of HpVAL-4 and unravel the possible impact of sterol binding on immune-modulatory functions.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP), excretory–secretory products, pathogenesis related-1 (PR-1), sperm coating protein (SCP), sterol binding, testis specific proteins (Tpx), venom antigen 5.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Drurey, Claire and Maizels, Professor Rick
Authors: Asojo, O. A., Darwiche, R., Gebremedhin, S., Smant, G., Lozano-Torres, J. L., Drurey, C., Pollet, J., Maizels, R. M., Schneiter, R., and Wilbers, R. H.P.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:International Journal for Parasitology
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0020-7519
ISSN (Online):1879-0135
Published Online:02 March 2018
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 The Authors
First Published:First published in International Journal for Parasitology 48(5): 359-369
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
765221Helminths and the Immune System: Regulation, Regulators and ImmunityRichard MaizelsWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)106122/A/14/ZIII - PARASITOLOGY
371799The Wellcome Centre for Molecular Parasitology ( Core Support )Andrew WatersWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)104111/Z/14/Z & AIII - PARASITOLOGY