The influence of racism on cigarette smoking: longitudinal study of young people in a British multiethnic cohort

Read, U. M., Karamanos, A., Silva, M. J., Molaodi, O. R., Enayat, Z. E., Cassidy, A., Cruickshank, J. K. and Harding, S. (2018) The influence of racism on cigarette smoking: longitudinal study of young people in a British multiethnic cohort. PLoS ONE, 13(1), 0190496. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0190496) (PMID:29364959) (PMCID:PMC5783341)

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Abstract

Introduction: Studies, predominantly from the US, suggest that positive parenting, social support, academic achievement, and ethnic identity may buffer the impact of racism on health behaviours, including smoking, but little is known about how such effects might operate for ethnically diverse young people in the United Kingdom. We use the Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH), the largest UK longitudinal study of ethnically diverse young people, to address the following questions: a) Is racism associated with smoking? b) Does the relationship between racism and smoking vary by gender and by ethnicity? (c) Do religious involvement, parenting style and relationship with parents modify any observed relationship? and d) What are the qualitative experiences of racism and how might family or religion buffer the impact? Methods: The cohort was recruited from 51 London schools. 6643 were seen at 11-13y and 4785 seen again at 14-16y. 665 participated in pilot follow-up at 21-23y, 42 in qualitative interviews. Self-report questionnaires included lifestyles, socio-economic and psychosocial factors. Mixed-effect models examined the associations between racism and smoking. Results: Smoking prevalence increased from adolescence to age 21-23y, although ethnic minorities remained less likely to smoke. Racism was an independent longitudinal correlate of ever smoking throughout adolescence (odds ratio 1.77, 95% Confidence Interval 1.45–2.17) and from early adolescence to early 20s (1.90, 95% CI 1.25–2.90). Smoking initiation in late adolescence was associated with cumulative exposure to racism (1.77, 95% CI 1.23–2.54). Parent-child relationships and place of worship attendance were independent longitudinal correlates that were protective of smoking. Qualitative narratives explored how parenting, religion and cultural identity buffered the adverse impact of racism. Conclusions: Racism was associated with smoking behaviour from early adolescence to early adulthood, regardless of gender, ethnicity or socio-economic circumstances adding to evidence of the need to consider racism as an important social determinant of health across the life course.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cassidy, Aidan and Molaodi, Dr Oarabile
Creator Roles:
Molaodi, O. R.Data curation, Formal analysis
Cassidy, A.Data curation, Investigation, Project administration
Authors: Read, U. M., Karamanos, A., Silva, M. J., Molaodi, O. R., Enayat, Z. E., Cassidy, A., Cruickshank, J. K., and Harding, S.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > MRC/CSO SPHSU
Journal Name:PLoS ONE
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1932-6203
ISSN (Online):1932-6203
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2018 Read et al.
First Published:First published in PLoS ONE 13(1): 0190496
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
656561Ethnicity and healthSeeromanie HardingMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12017/1IHW - MRC/CSO SPHU
727651SPHSU Core Renewal: Measuring and Analysing Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health Research ProgrammeAlastair LeylandMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12017/13IHW - MRC/CSO SPHU

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