Intelligence and specific cognitive functions in intellectual disability: implications for assessment and classification

Bertelli, M. O., Cooper, S.-A. and Salvador-Carulla, L. (2018) Intelligence and specific cognitive functions in intellectual disability: implications for assessment and classification. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 31(2), pp. 88-95. (doi:10.1097/YCO.0000000000000387) (PMID:29206685)

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Abstract

Purpose of review: Current diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability categorize ability as measured by IQ tests. However, this does not suit the new conceptualization of intellectual disability, which refers to a range of neuropsychiatric syndromes that have in common early onset, cognitive impairments, and consequent deficits in learning and adaptive functioning. A literature review was undertaken on the concept of intelligence and whether it encompasses a range of specific cognitive functions to solve problems, which might be better reported as a profile, instead of an IQ, with implications for diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability. Recent findings: Data support a model of intelligence consisting of distinct but related processes. Persons with intellectual disability with the same IQ level have different cognitive profiles, based on varying factors involved in aetiopathogenesis. Limitations of functioning and many biopsychological factors associated with intellectual disability are more highly correlated with impairments of specific cognitive functions than with overall IQ. Summary: The current model of intelligence, based on IQ, is of limited utility for intellectual disability, given the wide range and variability of cognitive functions and adaptive capacities. Assessing level of individual impairment in executive and specific cognitive functions may be a more useful alternative. This has considerable implications for the revision of the International Classification of Diseases and for the cultural attitude towards intellectual disability in general.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cooper, Professor Sally-Ann
Authors: Bertelli, M. O., Cooper, S.-A., and Salvador-Carulla, L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Mental Health and Wellbeing
Journal Name:Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Publisher:Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
ISSN:0951-736
ISSN (Online):1473-6578
Published Online:04 December 2017
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
First Published:First published in Current Opinion in Psychiatry 31(2): 88-95
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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