Metabolomics on CMOS for personalised medicine

Cheah, B. C. and Cumming, D. R.S. (2018) Metabolomics on CMOS for personalised medicine. In: Mitra, S. and Cumming, D. R.S. (eds.) CMOS Circuits for Biological Sensing and Processing Systems. Springer, pp. 23-46. ISBN 9783319677224 (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-67723-1_2)

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The emergence of personalised and precision healthcare requires detailed knowledge of human molecular pathology. Genomics has been transformed by sequencing technologies that can unravel the human genome in 1 day for less than a thousand dollars. Recently, metabolomics, the quantitative measurement of small molecules, has emerged as a field to study an individual’s molecular profile. This is very important because a genome can only give a prediction of an individual’s propensity to a disease – genotyping, while a metabolome can provide immediate diagnosis of biochemical activity in human body – phenotyping. However, the present approach of measuring metabolites depends on large and expensive equipment such as NMR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. More importantly, this equipment does not provide a single analytical platform to measure the entire metabolome. CMOS technology has made a major impact in personal mobile computing, digital imaging and communications as part of everyday life. CMOS provides a single integrated platform for sensing technologies, low-cost manufacturing and miniaturisation of microelectronic systems. CMOS has been used successfully to create an all-electronic sequencing technology. We anticipate that CMOS has the potential to allow multiple biomarkers to be monitored in parallel, thus paving the way for metabolome profiling. This review will provide a background to personalised medicine, in terms of genomics and metabolomics, to show the importance for future healthcare delivery. A theoretical background of enzymes for metabolite quantification will also be discussed. A description of DNA microarray technologies will be provided. A background of CMOS chemical sensor systems will be presented for DNA sequencing and metabolite quantification. Finally, a discussion of future CMOS sensor systems, microelectronics and integration technologies that could lead to new “omics” technologies, will be given.

Item Type:Book Sections
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cumming, Professor David and Cheah, Dr Boon Chong
Authors: Cheah, B. C., and Cumming, D. R.S.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Electronics and Nanoscale Engineering

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