Serological and spatial analysis of alphavirus and flavivirus prevalence and risk factors in a rural community in western Kenya

Grossi-Soyster, E. N., Cook, E. A.J., de Glanville, W. A., Thomas, L. F., Krystosik, A. R., Lee, J., Wamae, C. N., Kariuki, S., Fèvre, E. M. and LaBeaud, A. D. (2017) Serological and spatial analysis of alphavirus and flavivirus prevalence and risk factors in a rural community in western Kenya. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 11(10), e0005998. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005998) (PMID:29040262) (PMCID:PMC5659799)

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Abstract

Alphaviruses, such as chikungunya virus, and flaviviruses, such as dengue virus, are (re)-emerging arboviruses that are endemic in tropical environments. In Africa, arbovirus infections are often undiagnosed and unreported, with febrile illnesses often assumed to be malaria. This cross-sectional study aimed to characterize the seroprevalence of alphaviruses and flaviviruses among children (ages 5–14, n = 250) and adults (ages 15 ≥ 75, n = 250) in western Kenya. Risk factors for seropositivity were explored using Lasso regression. Overall, 67% of participants showed alphavirus seropositivity (CI95 63%–70%), and 1.6% of participants showed flavivirus seropositivity (CI95 0.7%–3%). Children aged 10–14 were more likely to be seropositive to an alphavirus than adults (p < 0.001), suggesting a recent transmission period. Alphavirus and flavivirus seropositivity was detected in the youngest participants (age 5–9), providing evidence of inter-epidemic transmission. Demographic variables that were significantly different amongst those with previous infection versus those without infection included age, education level, and occupation. Behavioral and environmental variables significantly different amongst those in with previous infection to those without infection included taking animals for grazing, fishing, and recent village flooding. Experience of recent fever was also found to be a significant indicator of infection (p = 0.027). These results confirm alphavirus and flavivirus exposure in western Kenya, while illustrating significantly higher alphavirus transmission compared to previous studies.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This project was supported by the Wellcome Trust (085308) and also received support from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, the Department for International Development, the Economic & Social Research Council, the Medical Research Council, the Natural Environment Research Council, and the Defence Science & Technology Laboratory, under the Zoonoses and Emerging Livestock Systems (ZELS) programme, grant reference BB/ L019019/ 1. LFT and WAdG were supported by BBSRC DTG awards, and EAJC by an MRC DTG award. This work received support from the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). We also acknowledge the CGIAR Fund Donors (http://www.cgiar.org/ who-we-are/cgiar-fund/fund-donors-2). This project was also supported by the NIH (R01 AI102918) (https://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/ r01.htm). ADL, ENGS, ARK, and JL were supported by the NIH R01 award.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:De Glanville, Dr William
Authors: Grossi-Soyster, E. N., Cook, E. A.J., de Glanville, W. A., Thomas, L. F., Krystosik, A. R., Lee, J., Wamae, C. N., Kariuki, S., Fèvre, E. M., and LaBeaud, A. D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1935-2727
ISSN (Online):1935-2735
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 The AuthorsGrossi-Soyster et al.
First Published:First published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11(10):e0005998
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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