NuSTAR hard X-ray observation of a sub-A class solar flare

Glesener, L., Krucker, S., Hannah, I. G. , Hudson, H. , Grefenstette, B. W., White, S. M., Smith, D. M. and Marsh, A. J. (2017) NuSTAR hard X-ray observation of a sub-A class solar flare. Astrophysical Journal, 845(2), 122. (doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa80e9)

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Abstract

We report a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observation of a solar microflare, SOL2015-09-01T04. Although it was too faint to be observed by the GOES X-ray Sensor, we estimate the event to be an A0.1 class flare in brightness. This microflare, with only ~5 counts s−1 detector−1 observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), is fainter than any hard X-ray (HXR) flare in the existing literature. The microflare occurred during a solar pointing by the highly sensitive NuSTAR astrophysical observatory, which used its direct focusing optics to produce detailed HXR microflare spectra and images. The microflare exhibits HXR properties commonly observed in larger flares, including a fast rise and more gradual decay, earlier peak time with higher energy, spatial dimensions similar to the RHESSI microflares, and a high-energy excess beyond an isothermal spectral component during the impulsive phase. The microflare is small in emission measure, temperature, and energy, though not in physical size; observations are consistent with an origin via the interaction of at least two magnetic loops. We estimate the increase in thermal energy at the time of the microflare to be 2.4 × 1027 erg. The observation suggests that flares do indeed scale down to extremely small energies and retain what we customarily think of as "flare-like" properties.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Hudson, Dr Hugh and Hannah, Dr Iain
Authors: Glesener, L., Krucker, S., Hannah, I. G., Hudson, H., Grefenstette, B. W., White, S. M., Smith, D. M., and Marsh, A. J.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Journal Name:Astrophysical Journal
Publisher:IOP
ISSN:1538-4357
ISSN (Online):1538-4357
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 American Astronomical Society
First Published:First published in Astrophysical Journal 845(2):122
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
617951The many scales of flaring energy release on the SunIain HannahThe Royal Society (ROYSOC)UF120063S&E P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY