In-depth critical analysis of complications following robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion

Tan, W. S., Lamb, B. W., Tan, M.-Y., Ahmad, I. , Sridhar, A., Nathan, S., Hines, J., Shaw, G., Briggs, T. P. and Kelly, J. D. (2017) In-depth critical analysis of complications following robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion. European Urology Focus, 3(2-3), pp. 273-279. (doi:10.1016/j.euf.2016.06.002) (PMID:28753745)

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Abstract

Background: Robot-assisted radical cystectomy with intracorporeal urinary diversion (iRARC) is an attractive option to open cystectomy, but the benefit in terms of improved outcomes is not established. Objective: To evaluate the early postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing iRARC and conduct a critical analysis of complications using standardised reporting criteria as stratified according to urinary diversion. Design, setting, and participants: A total of 134 patients underwent iRARC for bladder cancer at a single centre between June 2011 and July 2015. Intervention: Radical cystectomy with iRARC. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: Patient demographics, pathologic data, and 90-d perioperative mortality and complications were recorded. Complications were reported according to the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification and stratified according to urinary diversion type and either surgical or medical complications. The chi-square test and t test were used for categorical and continuous variables respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was performed on variables with significance in univariate analysis. Results and limitations: The 90-d all complication rate following ileal conduit and continent diversion was 68% and 82.4%, and major complications were 21.0% and 20.6% respectively. The 90-d mortality was 3% and 2.9% for ileal conduit and continent diversion patients, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the blood transfusion requirement was independently associated with major complications (p = 0.002) and all 30-d (p = 0.002) and 90-d (p = 0.012) major complications. Male patients were associated with 90-d major complications (p = 0.015). Critical analysis identified that surgical complications were responsible for 39.4% of all 90-d major complications. The incidence of surgical complications did not decline with increasing number of iRARC cases performed (p = 0.742, r = 0.31). Limitations of this study include its retrospective nature, limited sample size, and limited multivariate analysis due to the low number of major complications events. Conclusions: Although complications following iRARC are common, most are low grade. A critical analysis identified surgical complications as a cause of major complications. Addressing this issue could have a significant impact on lowering the morbidity associated with iRARC. Patient summary: We looked at the surgical outcomes in bladder cancer patients treated with minimally invasive robotic surgery. We found that surgical complications account for most major complications and previous surgical experience may be a confounding factor when interpreting results from a different centre even in a randomised trial setting.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Bladder cancer, complications, cystectomy, intracorporeal urinary diversion, reference standards, robotics.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Ahmad, Dr Imran
Authors: Tan, W. S., Lamb, B. W., Tan, M.-Y., Ahmad, I., Sridhar, A., Nathan, S., Hines, J., Shaw, G., Briggs, T. P., and Kelly, J. D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:European Urology Focus
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2405-4569
ISSN (Online):2405-4569
Published Online:17 June 2016
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 Elsevier
First Published:First published in European Urology Focus 3(2-3):273-279
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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