Learning climate and feedback as predictors of dental students' self-determined motivation: The mediating role of basic psychological needs satisfaction

Orsini, C., Binnie, V. , Wilson, S. and Villegas, M.J. (2018) Learning climate and feedback as predictors of dental students' self-determined motivation: The mediating role of basic psychological needs satisfaction. European Journal of Dental Education, 22(2), e228-e236. (doi:10.1111/eje.12277) (PMID:28643884)

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Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to test the mediating role of the satisfaction of dental students’ basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness on the association between learning climate, feedback and student motivation. The latter was based on the self- determination theory’s concepts of differentiation of autonomous motivation, controlled motivation and amotivation.Methods: A cross- sectional correlational study was conducted where 924 students completed self- reported questionnaires measuring motivation, perception of the learning climate, feedback and basic psychological needs satisfaction. Descriptive sta-tistics, Cronbach’s alpha scores and bivariate correlations were computed. Mediation of basic needs on each predictor- outcome association was tested based on a series of regression analyses. Finally, all variables were integrated into one structural equation model, controlling for the effects of age, gender and year of study.Results: Cronbach’s alpha scores were acceptable (.655 to .905). Correlation analyses showed positive and significant associations between both an autonomy- supportive learning climate and the quantity and quality of feedback received, and students’ au-tonomous motivation, which decreased and became negative when correlated with controlled motivation and amotivation, respectively. Regression analyses revealed that these associations were indirect and mediated by how these predictors satisfied students’ basic psychological needs. These results were corroborated by the structural equation analysis, in which data fit the model well and regression paths were in the expected direction.Conclusion: An autonomy- supportive learning climate and the quantity and quality of feedback were positive predictors of students’ autonomous motivation and negative predictors of amotivation. However, this was an indirect association mediated by the satisfaction of students’ basic psychological needs. Consequently, supporting stu-dents’ needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness might lead to optimal types of motivation, which has an important influence on dental education.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was supported by the Association for Dental Education in Europe’s 40th Anniversary Scholarship Award—General Stream 2015- 2016.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Binnie, Dr Vivian and Wilson, Dr Sarah
Authors: Orsini, C., Binnie, V., Wilson, S., and Villegas, M.J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Dental School
Journal Name:European Journal of Dental Education
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:1396-5883
ISSN (Online):1600-0579
Published Online:23 June 2017
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons A/S
First Published:First published in European Journal of Dental Education 22(2):e228-e236
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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