Nacre topography produces higher crystallinity in bone than chemically induced osteogenesis

Alakpa, E. V., Burgess, K. E.V., Chung, P., Riehle, M. O. , Gadegaard, N. , Dalby, M. J. and Cusack, M. (2017) Nacre topography produces higher crystallinity in bone than chemically induced osteogenesis. ACS Nano, 11(7), pp. 6717-6727. (doi:10.1021/acsnano.7b01044) (PMID:28665112)

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Abstract

It is counterintuitive that invertebrate shells can induce bone formation, yet nacre, or mother of pearl, from marine shells is both osteoinductive and osteointegrative. Nacre is composed of aragonite (calcium carbonate) and induces production of vertebrate bone (calcium phosphate). Exploited by the Mayans for dental implants, this remarkable phenomenon has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, yet the characteristic of nacre that induces bone formation remains unknown. By isolating nacre topography from its inherent chemistry in the production of polycaprolactone (PCL) nacre replica, we show that, for mesenchymal stem cells, nacre topography is osteoinductive. Gene expression of specific bone marker proteins, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin, and osterix, is increased 10-, 2-, 1.7-, and 1.8-fold, respectively, when compared to planar PCL. Furthermore, we demonstrate that bone tissue that forms in response to the physical topographical features of nacre has a higher crystallinity than bone formed in response to chemical cues with a full width half-maximum for PO43– Raman shift of 7.6 ± 0.7 for mineral produced in response to nacre replica compared to a much broader 34.6 ± 10.1 in response to standard osteoinductive medium. These differences in mineral product are underpinned by differences in cellular metabolism. This observation can be exploited in the design of bone therapies; a matter that is most pressing in light of a rapidly aging human population.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Riehle, Dr Mathis and Burgess, Dr Karl and Alakpa, Miss Enateri and Chung, Mr Peter and Cusack, Professor Maggie and Gadegaard, Professor Nikolaj and Dalby, Professor Matthew
Authors: Alakpa, E. V., Burgess, K. E.V., Chung, P., Riehle, M. O., Gadegaard, N., Dalby, M. J., and Cusack, M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology
College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Biomedical Engineering
College of Science and Engineering > School of Geographical and Earth Sciences
Journal Name:ACS Nano
Publisher:American Chemical Society
ISSN:1936-0851
ISSN (Online):1936-086X
Published Online:30 June 2017
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society
First Published:First published in ACS Nano 11(7): 6717-6727
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons license

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
609651Stem Cells metabolomics for bone therapies and tissue engineering.Maggie CusackMedical Research Council (MRC)MR/K011278/1SCHOOL OF GEOGRAPHICAL & EARTH SCIENCES