A TEM and HREM study of particle formation during barium titanate synthesis in aqueous solution

MacLaren, I. and Ponton, C.B. (2000) A TEM and HREM study of particle formation during barium titanate synthesis in aqueous solution. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 20(9), pp. 1267-1275. (doi:10.1016/S0955-2219(99)00287-3)

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Abstract

The formation mechanisms of barium titanate particles from an amorphous TiO2 gel during synthesis in aqueous solution at temperatures between 20 and 80°C have been investigated. It was found that barium ions diffuse into the gel almost immediately, with nanocrystalline BaTiO3 particles being formed after heating to just 40°C. These particles grew to dimensions of about 100 nm as the temperature was increased to 80°C, consuming the remaining TiO2 gel. Some remnants of gel were found on particle surfaces in a sample taken at this temperature but after holding the sol at 80°C for 2 or 4 h, the particle surfaces became “cleaner” and more rounded. It is proposed on the basis of these observations that the BaTiO3 particles were formed by an in-situ transformation of the amorphous TiO2 gel. The mechanism by which (i) the particles were then rounded off and (ii) the final gel fragments were incorporated into the main BaTiO3 particles was, however, less clear.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:MacLaren, Dr Ian
Authors: MacLaren, I., and Ponton, C.B.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Journal Name:Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0955-2219
ISSN (Online):1873-619X
Published Online:06 July 2000

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