A novel Ras-interacting protein required for chemotaxis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal relay in Dictyostelium

Lee, S., Parent, C. A., Insall, R. and Firtel, R. A. (1999) A novel Ras-interacting protein required for chemotaxis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal relay in Dictyostelium. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 10(9), pp. 2829-2845. (doi: 10.1091/mbc.10.9.2829) (PMID:10473630) (PMCID:PMC25521)

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We have identified a novel Ras-interacting protein fromDictyostelium, RIP3, whose function is required for both chemotaxis and the synthesis and relay of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemoattractant signal. rip3 null cells are unable to aggregate and lack receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase but are able, in response to cAMP, to induce aggregation-stage, postaggregative, and cell-type-specific gene expression in suspension culture. In addition, rip3 null cells are unable to properly polarize in a cAMP gradient and chemotaxis is highly impaired. We demonstrate that cAMP stimulation of guanylyl cyclase, which is required for chemotaxis, is reduced ∼60% in rip3 null cells. This reduced activation of guanylyl cyclase may account, in part, for the defect in chemotaxis. When cells are pulsed with cAMP for 5 h to mimic the endogenous cAMP oscillations that occur in wild-type strains, the cells will form aggregates, most of which, however, arrest at the mound stage. Unlike the response seen in wild-type strains, the rip3 null cell aggregates that form under these experimental conditions are very small, which is probably due to the rip3 null cell chemotaxis defect. Many of the phenotypes of the rip3 null cell, including the inability to activate adenylyl cyclase in response to cAMP and defects in chemotaxis, are very similar to those of strains carrying a disruption of the gene encoding the putative Ras exchange factor AleA. We demonstrate that aleA null cells also exhibit a defect in cAMP-mediated activation of guanylyl cyclase similar to that of rip3 null cells. A double-knockout mutant (rip3/aleA null cells) exhibits a further reduction in receptor activation of guanylyl cyclase, and these cells display almost no cell polarization or movement in cAMP gradients. As RIP3 preferentially interacts with an activated form of theDictyostelium Ras protein RasG, which itself is important for cell movement, we propose that RIP3 and AleA are components of a Ras-regulated pathway involved in integrating chemotaxis and signal relay pathways that are essential for aggregation.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Insall, Professor Robert
Authors: Lee, S., Parent, C. A., Insall, R., and Firtel, R. A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
Journal Name:Molecular Biology of the Cell
Publisher:American Society for Cell Biology
ISSN (Online):1939-4586

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