The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and related assemblies in health and disease

Byron, O. and Lindsay, J. G. (2017) The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and related assemblies in health and disease. In: Harris, J. R. and Marles-Wright, J. (eds.) Macromolecular Protein Complexes. Series: Subcellular biochemistry (83). Springer, pp. 523-550. ISBN 9783319465012 (doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46503-6_19)

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The family of 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complexes (2-OADC), typified by the pyruvate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complex (PDC) as its most prominent member, are massive molecular machines (Mr, 4-10 million) controlling key steps in glucose homeostasis (PDC), citric acid cycle flux (OGDC, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine (BCOADC, branched-chain 2-OADC). These highly organised mitochondrial arrays, composed of multiple copies of three separate enzymes, have been widely studied as paradigms for the analysis of enzyme cooperativity, substrate channelling, protein-protein interactions and the regulation of activity by phosphorylation . This chapter will highlight recent advances in our understanding of the structure-function relationships, the overall organisation and the transport and assembly of PDC in particular, focussing on both native and recombinant forms of the complex and their individual components or constituent domains. Biophysical approaches, including X-ray crystallography (MX), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), cryo-EM imaging, analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and small angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS), have all contributed significant new information on PDC subunit organisation, stoichiometry, regulatory mechanisms and mode of assembly. Moreover, the recognition of specific genetic defects linked to PDC deficiency, in combination with the ability to analyse recombinant PDCs housing both novel naturally-occurring and engineered mutations, have all stimulated renewed interest in these classical metabolic assemblies. In addition, the role played by PDC, and its constituent proteins, in certain disease states will be briefly reviewed, focussing on the development of new and exciting areas of medical and immunological research.

Item Type:Book Sections
Additional Information:Online ISBN: 9783319465036.
Keywords:Biophysical characterisation, genetic defects, intracellular trafficking, PDC deficiency, phosphorylation, potential drug target, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, reaction cycle, structure-function relationship, supramolecular architecture.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Byron, Professor Olwyn and Lindsay, Professor John Gordon
Authors: Byron, O., and Lindsay, J. G.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Life Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology
Journal Name:Sub-cellular biochemistry

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