Role of cellular caspases, nuclear factor-kappa B and interferon regulatory factors in Bluetongue virus infection and cell fate

Stewart, M. E. and Roy, P. (2010) Role of cellular caspases, nuclear factor-kappa B and interferon regulatory factors in Bluetongue virus infection and cell fate. Virology Journal, 7(1), 362. (doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-362) (PMID:21134281) (PMCID:PMC3002312)

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Abstract

Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection causes haemorrhagic disease in ruminants and induces cell death. The pathogenesis in animals and in cell culture has been linked to BTV-induced apoptosis. Results: In this report, we investigated BTV-induced apoptosis in cell culture in depth and show that both extrinsic (caspase-8 activation) and intrinsic (caspase-9 activation) pathways play roles in BTV apoptosis. Further, by using chemical inhibitors and knock-out cell lines, we show that these pathways act independently of each other in BTV infected cells. In addition to activation of caspase-8, -9 and executioner caspase-3, we also identified that BTV infection causes the activation of caspase-7, which results in the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). BTV-induced cell death appears to be due to apoptosis rather than necrosis, as the HMBG-1 was not translocated from the nucleus. We also examined if NF-κB response is related to BTV-induced apoptosis as in reovirus. Our data suggests that NF-κB response is not linked to the induction of apoptosis. It is controlled by the degradation of only IκBα but not IκBβ, resulting in a rapid transient response during BTV infection. This was supported using an NF-κB dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, which demonstrated early response, that appeared to be suppressed by the late stage of BTV replication. Furthermore, virus titres were higher in the presence of NF-κB inhibitor (SN50), indicating that NF-κB has a role in initiating an antiviral environment. In addition, we show that BTV infection induces the translocation of interferon regulatory factors (IRF-3 and IRF-7) into the nucleus. The induction of IRF responses, when measured by IRF dependent luciferase reporter gene assay, revealed that the IRF responses, like NF-κB response, were also at early stage of infection and mirrored the timing of NF-κB induction. Conclusion: BTV triggers a wide range of caspase activities resulting in cell apoptosis. Although both NF-κB and IRF responses are induced by BTV infection, they are not sustained.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Stewart, Dr Meredith
Authors: Stewart, M. E., and Roy, P.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Virology Journal
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1743-422X
ISSN (Online):1743-422X
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2010 Stewart and Roy
First Published:First published in Virology Journal 7:362
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a creative commons license

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