[Oxidative stress and vascular function]

Urbański, K., Nowak, M. and Guzik, T.J. (2013) [Oxidative stress and vascular function]. Postepy Biochemii, 59(4), pp. 424-431. (PMID:24745173)

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The maintenance of blood vessel homeostasis is closely associated with Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS and RNS) production in the blood vessel wall. The main molecules taking part in this process are nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2*-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their derivatives. The production of these factors occurs in health and disease, however the increased ROS release is often referred to as oxidative stress. While initially oxidative stress was considered systemically, recent data indicate that it occurs locally in subcellular spaces and may be a result of dysfunction of individual enzyme systems. Oxidative stress induces inflammation, proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells, may regulate apoptosis and the function of the cells of vascular wall, finally leading to dysfunction of endothelium, media and adventitia, leading to cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension or heart failure. It is believed that a family of NADPH oxidases is the main source of ROS in the vessel wall, but also in other organs and tissues. It consists of seven known and quite precisely characterized homologues (NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, NOX5, DUOX1 and DUOX2) which often have very distinct activity and cellular localization and function. Besides harmful actions, we are beginning to understand the protective effects of ROS and RNS. They have many functions regulating redox-sensitive gene expression and influencing a proper function of cells and vessels. NOX4 has been particularly well characterized in this respect. Thus, the maintenance of the right homeostasis depends not only on ROS removing capabilities, but especially on preserving the adequate level of ROS production.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Guzik, Professor Tomasz
Authors: Urbański, K., Nowak, M., and Guzik, T.J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Postepy Biochemii
Publisher:Polskie Towarzystwo Biochemiczne

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