Antimicrobial use and veterinary care among agro-pastoralists in Northern Tanzania

Caudell, M. A., Quinlan, M. B., Subbiah, M., Call, D. R., Roulette, C. J., Roulette, J. W., Roth, A., Matthews, L. and Quinlan, R. J. (2017) Antimicrobial use and veterinary care among agro-pastoralists in Northern Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 12(1), e0170328. (doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170328) (PMID:28125722) (PMCID:PMC5268417)

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Abstract

Frequent and unregulated use of antimicrobials (AM) in livestock requires public health attention as a likely selection pressure for resistant bacteria. Studies among small-holders, who own a large percentage of the world’s livestock, are vital for understanding how practices involving AM use might influence resistance. We present a cultural-ecological mixedmethods analysis to explore sectors of veterinary care, loosely regulated AM use, and human exposure to AMs through meat and milk consumption across three rural to periurban Tanzanian ethnic groups (N = 415 households). Reported use of self-administered AMs varied by ethnic group (Maasai: 74%, Arusha: 21%, Chagga: 1%) as did consultation with professional veterinarians (Maasai: 36%, Arusha: 45%, Chagga: 96%) and observation of withdrawal of meat and milk from consumption during and following AM treatment (Maasai: 7%, Arusha: 72%, Chagga: 96%). The antibiotic oxytetracycline was by far the most common AM in this sample. Within ethnic groups, herd composition differences, particularly size of small-stock and cattle herds, were most strongly associated with differences in lay AM use. Among the Arusha, proxies for urbanization, including owning transportation and reliance on “zero-grazing” herds had the strongest positive associations with veterinarian consultation, while distance to urban centers was negatively associated. For Maasai, consultation was negatively associated with use of traditional healers or veterinary drug-shops. Observation of withdrawal was most strongly associated with owning technology among Maasai while Arusha observance displayed seasonal differences. This “One-Health” analysis suggests that livelihood and cultural niche factors, through their association with practices in smallholder populations, provide insight into the selection pressures that may contribute to the evolution and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Matthews, Professor Louise
Authors: Caudell, M. A., Quinlan, M. B., Subbiah, M., Call, D. R., Roulette, C. J., Roulette, J. W., Roth, A., Matthews, L., and Quinlan, R. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:PLoS ONE
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1932-6203
ISSN (Online):1932-6203
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 Caudell et al.
First Published:First published in PLoS ONE 12(1): e0170328
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
569671Ecological and socioeconomic factors impacting maintenance and dissemination of antibiotic resistance in the Greater Serengeti EcosystemLouise MatthewsBiotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)BB/K01126X/1RI BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL HEALTH & COMPMED