Perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in vascular disease

Nosalski, R. and Guzik, T. J. (2017) Perivascular adipose tissue inflammation in vascular disease. British Journal of Pharmacology, 174(20), pp. 3496-3513. (doi: 10.1111/bph.13705) (PMID:28063251)

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Abstract

Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies, perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte-derived relaxing factors and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokines [RANTES (CCL5) and MCP-1 (CCL2)]. These adipocyte-derived factors initiate and orchestrate inflammatory cell infiltration including primarily T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells and NK cells. Protective factors such as adiponectin can reduce NADPH oxidase superoxide production and increase NO bioavailability in the vessel wall, while inflammation (e.g. IFN-γ or IL-17) induces vascular oxidases and eNOS dysfunction in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle cells and adventitial fibroblasts. All of these events link the dysfunctional perivascular fat to vascular dysfunction. These mechanisms are important in the context of a number of cardiovascular disorders including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Inflammatory changes in PVAT's molecular and cellular responses are uniquely different from classical visceral or subcutaneous adipose tissue or from adventitia, emphasizing the unique structural and functional features of this adipose tissue compartment. Therefore, it is essential to develop techniques for monitoring the characteristics of PVAT and assessing its inflammation. This will lead to a better understanding of the early stages of vascular pathologies and the development of new therapeutic strategies focusing on perivascular adipose tissue.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Guzik, Professor Tomasz and Nosalski, Mr Ryszard
Authors: Nosalski, R., and Guzik, T. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:British Journal of Pharmacology
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:0007-1188
ISSN (Online):1476-5381
Published Online:07 January 2017
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society
First Published:First published in British Journal of Pharmacology 174(20):3496-3513
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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