Determination of residues important in hormone binding to the extracellular domain of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor by site-directed mutagenesis and modeling.

Bhowmick, N., Huang, J., Puett, D., Isaacs, N.W. and Lapthorn, A.J. (1996) Determination of residues important in hormone binding to the extracellular domain of the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor by site-directed mutagenesis and modeling. Molecular Endocrinology, 10(9), pp. 1147-1159. (doi:10.1210/mend.10.9.8885249)

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Abstract

The LH/CG receptor (LH/CG-R) belongs to the family of glycoprotein hormone G protein-coupled receptors. The extracellular domain of LH/CG-R is associated with high ligand-binding affinity and contains leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). With the goal of identifying essential amino acid residues involved in ligand binding, we replaced several conserved ionizable residues in the rat LH/CG-R with ones of opposite charge. The expression of these mutants was assessed by binding studies and Western blots after COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with wild type and mutant receptor cDNAs. The charge inversion of each of Lys40, Lys104, Asp118, Glu132, and Asp135 with Asp or Lys resulted in no detectable human CG binding in intact or solubilized cells; as control, a Lys40-->Arg replacement yielded a mutant with characteristics of the wild type receptor. Western analysis showed that the Lys40-->Arg mutant expressed at a level comparable to that of wild type receptor and, like wild type, exhibited a predominant immunoreactive mature form of LH/CG-R. Each of the five charge inversion mutants expressed at a lower level than wild type as assessed by immunoreactivity, and the levels of the Lys40-->Asp and Glu132-->Lys mutants were particularly low. The ratio of the mature to immature form of the receptor was high, i.e. like that of wild type, for the Glu132-->Lys and Asp135-->Lys replacements; the three other charge inversion mutants exhibited less mature than immature forms of the receptor. To aid in interpreting these results, we developed a model incorporating residues 27-235 of the extracellular domain of the rat LH/CG-R based on the crystal structure of the porcine ribonuclease inhibitor. Sequence homology and alignment revealed nine LRRs, with flanking cysteine clusters as found in a number of LRR proteins. Our model suggested that the Lys replacements of Glu132 and Asp135, i.e. those mutants that formed mature receptors, would disrupt the regional negative charge of the receptor. We propose that these residues are either directly involved in hormone binding or indirectly by disruption of the charge of an important binding surface. - See more at: http://press.endocrine.org/doi/10.1210/mend.10.9.8885249#sthash.R4L1atOi.dpuf

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lapthorn, Dr Adrian
Authors: Bhowmick, N., Huang, J., Puett, D., Isaacs, N.W., and Lapthorn, A.J.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Chemistry
Journal Name:Molecular Endocrinology
ISSN:0888-8809

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