Ecosystem uptake and transfer of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon (14C). Part 1. The Irish Sea

Muir, G. K.P. , Tierney, K. M. , Cook, G. T. , MacKinnon, G. , Howe, J. A., Heymans, J. J., Hughes, D. J. and Xu, S. (2017) Ecosystem uptake and transfer of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon (14C). Part 1. The Irish Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 114(2), pp. 792-804. (doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.072)

Muir, G. K.P. , Tierney, K. M. , Cook, G. T. , MacKinnon, G. , Howe, J. A., Heymans, J. J., Hughes, D. J. and Xu, S. (2017) Ecosystem uptake and transfer of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon (14C). Part 1. The Irish Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 114(2), pp. 792-804. (doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.072)

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Abstract

Ecosystem uptake and transfer processes of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon (14C) within the Irish Sea were examined. Highly variable activities in sediment, seawater and biota indicate complex 14C dispersal and uptake dynamics. All east basin biota exhibited 14C enrichments above ambient background while most west basin biota had 14C activities close to background, although four organisms including two slow-moving species were significantly enriched. The western Irish Sea gyre is a suggested pathway for transfer of 14C to the west basin and retention therein. Despite ongoing Sellafield 14C discharges, organic sediments near Sellafield were significantly less enriched than associated benthic organisms. Rapid scavenging of labile, 14C-enriched organic material by organisms and mixing to depth of 14C-enriched detritus arriving at the sediment/water interface are proposed mechanisms to explain this. All commercially important fish, crustaceans and molluscs showed 14C enrichments above background; however, the radiation dose from their consumption is extremely low and radiologically insignificant.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was completed as part of the LO-RISE (Long-lived Radionuclides in Surface Environments; NE/L000202/1) consortium under the NERC RATE programme (Radioactivity and the Environment), co-funded by the Environment Agency and Radioactive Waste Management Ltd.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Tierney, Kieran Michael and Cook, Professor Gordon and Xu, Dr Sheng and Muir, Dr Graham and MacKinnon, Dr Gillian
Authors: Muir, G. K.P., Tierney, K. M., Cook, G. T., MacKinnon, G., Howe, J. A., Heymans, J. J., Hughes, D. J., and Xu, S.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre
Journal Name:Marine Pollution Bulletin
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0025-326X
ISSN (Online):1879-3363
Published Online:09 November 2016
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 The Authors
First Published:First published in Marine Pollution Bulletin 114(2):792-804
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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