Sugar and Type 2 diabetes

Lean, M. E.J. and Te Morenga, L. (2016) Sugar and Type 2 diabetes. British Medical Bulletin, 120(1), pp. 43-53. (doi:10.1093/bmb/ldw037) (PMID:27707695)

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Abstract

Background: Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sources of data: Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Areas of agreement: Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Areas of controversy: Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r2=0.65–0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Growing points: Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Areas timely for developing research: Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lean, Professor Michael
Authors: Lean, M. E.J., and Te Morenga, L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:British Medical Bulletin
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0007-1420
ISSN (Online):1471-8391
Published Online:05 October 2016
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 Oxford University Press
First Published:First published in British Medical Bulletin 120(1):43-53
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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