Association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering genetic variants and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis

Lotta, L. A. et al. (2016) Association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-lowering genetic variants and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 316(13), pp. 1383-1391. (doi:10.1001/jama.2016.14568) (PMID:27701660) (PMCID:PMC5386134)

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Abstract

Importance: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)–lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 or HMGCR, encoding the respective molecular targets of ezetimibe and statins, have previously been used as proxies to study the efficacy of these lipid-lowering drugs. Alleles near HMGCR are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, similar to the increased incidence of new-onset diabetes associated with statin treatment in randomized clinical trials. It is unknown whether alleles near NPC1L1 are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To investigate whether LDL-C-lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1 and other genes encoding current or prospective molecular targets of lipid-lowering therapy (ie, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, LDLR) are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease of LDL-C-lowering genetic variants were investigated in meta-analyses of genetic association studies. Meta-analyses included 50 775 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 270 269 controls and 60 801 individuals with coronary artery disease and 123 504 controls. Data collection took place in Europe and the United States between 1991 and 2016. Exposures: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol–lowering alleles in or near NPC1L1, HMGCR, PCSK9, ABCG5/G8, and LDLR. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs) for type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease. Results: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol–lowering genetic variants at NPC1L1 were inversely associated with coronary artery disease (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L [38.7-mg/dL] reduction in LDL-C of 0.61 [95% CI, 0.42-0.88]; P = .008) and directly associated with type 2 diabetes (OR for a genetically predicted 1-mmol/L reduction in LDL-C of 2.42 [95% CI, 1.70-3.43]; P < .001). For PCSK9 genetic variants, the OR for type 2 diabetes per 1-mmol/L genetically predicted reduction in LDL-C was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.02-1.38; P = .03). For a given reduction in LDL-C, genetic variants were associated with a similar reduction in coronary artery disease risk (I2 = 0% for heterogeneity in genetic associations; P = .93). However, associations with type 2 diabetes were heterogeneous (I2 = 77.2%; P = .002), indicating gene-specific associations with metabolic risk of LDL-C-lowering alleles. Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis, exposure to LDL-C-lowering genetic variants in or near NPC1L1 and other genes was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. These data provide insights into potential adverse effects of LDL-C-lowering therapy.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding for the MRC Epidemiology Unit was provided by the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council through grants MC_UU_12015/1, MC_PC_13046, MC_PC_13048 and MR/L00002/1. We acknowledge support from the National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre. Funding for the EPIC-InterAct Study was provided by the EU FP6 program grant LSHM_CT_2006_037197. Dr Burgess is supported by a postdoctoral fellowship 100114 from the Wellcome Trust. Dr McCarthy is a Wellcome Trust senior investigator and was supported by grants 090532 and 098381 from the Wellcome Trust. Dr Barroso was supported by grant WT098051 from the Wellcome Trust. Dr Savage was supported by the Wellcome Trust grant 107064.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Sattar, Professor Naveed
Authors: Lotta, L. A., Sharp, S. J., Burgess, S., Perry, J. R.B., Stewart, I. D., Willems, S. M., Luan, J.'a., Ardanaz, E., Arriola, L., Balkau, B., Boeing, H., Deloukas, P., Forouhi, N. G., Franks, P. W., Grioni, S., Kaaks, R., Key, T. J., Navarro, C., Nilsson, P. M., Overvad, K., Palli, D., Panico, S., Quirós, J.-R., Riboli, E., Rolandsson, O., Sacerdote, C., Salamanca-Fernandez, E., Slimani, N., Spijkerman, A. M.W., Tjonneland, A., Tumino, R., van der A, D. L., van der Schouw, Y. T., McCarthy, M. I., Barroso, I., O'Rahilly, S., Savage, D. B., Sattar, N., Langenberg, C., Scott, R. A., and Wareham, N. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association
Publisher:American Medical Association
ISSN:0098-7484
ISSN (Online):1538-3598
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 American Medical Association
First Published:First published in JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association 316(13): 1383-1391
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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