A novel role for Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) in the restriction of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) by the cellular intrinsic antiviral immune response

Conn, K. L., Wasson, P., McFarlane, S., Tong, L., Brown, J. R., Grant, K. G., Domingues, P. and Boutell, C. (2016) A novel role for Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) in the restriction of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) by the cellular intrinsic antiviral immune response. Journal of Virology, 90(9), pp. 4807-4826. (doi:10.1128/JVI.03055-15) (PMID:26937035)

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Abstract

Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is used by the intrinsic antiviral immune response to restrict viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Despite characterization of the host factors that rely on SUMOylation to exert their antiviral effects, the enzymes that mediate these SUMOylation events remain to be defined. We show that unconjugated SUMO levels are largely maintained throughout infection regardless of the presence of ICP0, the HSV-1 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase. Moreover, in the absence of ICP0, high-molecular-weight SUMO-conjugated proteins do not accumulate if HSV-1 DNA does not replicate. These data highlight the continued importance for SUMO signaling throughout infection. We show that the SUMO ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) is upregulated during HSV-1 infection and localizes to nuclear domains that contain viral DNA. PIAS4 is recruited to sites associated with HSV-1 genome entry through SUMO interaction motif (SIM)-dependent mechanisms that are destabilized by ICP0. In contrast, PIAS4 accumulates in replication compartments through SIM-independent mechanisms irrespective of ICP0 expression. Depletion of PIAS4 enhances the replication of ICP0-null mutant HSV-1, which is susceptible to restriction by the intrinsic antiviral immune response. The mechanisms of PIAS4-mediated restriction are synergistic with the restriction mechanisms of a characterized intrinsic antiviral factor, promyelocytic leukemia protein, and are antagonized by ICP0. We provide the first evidence that PIAS4 is an intrinsic antiviral factor. This novel role for PIAS4 in intrinsic antiviral immunity contrasts with the known roles of PIAS proteins as suppressors of innate immunity. IMPORTANCE Posttranslational modifications with small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins regulate multiple aspects of host immunity and viral replication. The protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family of SUMO ligases is predominantly associated with the suppression of innate immune signaling. We now identify a unique and contrasting role for PIAS proteins as positive regulators of the intrinsic antiviral immune response to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. We show that PIAS4 relocalizes to nuclear domains that contain viral DNA throughout infection. Depletion of PIAS4, either alone or in combination with the intrinsic antiviral factor promyelocytic leukemia protein, significantly impairs the intrinsic antiviral immune response to HSV-1 infection. Our data reveal a novel and dynamic role for PIAS4 in the cellular-mediated restriction of herpesviruses and establish a new functional role for the PIAS family of SUMO ligases in the intrinsic antiviral immune response to DNA virus infection.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Domingues, Miss Patricia and Grant, Dr Kyle and Boutell, Dr Chris and Brown, Mr James and Tong, Dr Lily and Wasson, Dr Peter and Conn, Dr Kristen and McFarlane, Mr Steven
Authors: Conn, K. L., Wasson, P., McFarlane, S., Tong, L., Brown, J. R., Grant, K. G., Domingues, P., and Boutell, C.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of Virology
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
ISSN:0022-538X
ISSN (Online):1098-5514
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 Conn et al.
First Published:First published in Journal of Virology 90(9):4807-4826
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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