Effects of laparoscopy on intraperitoneal tumor growth and distant metastases in an animal model

Dorrance, H. R., Oien, K. and O'Dwyer, P. J. (1999) Effects of laparoscopy on intraperitoneal tumor growth and distant metastases in an animal model. Surgery, 126(1), pp. 35-40. (doi: 10.1067/msy.1999.99056) (PMID:10418590)

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Abstract

Background and aims: Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is currently being evaluated in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of laparoscopy on intraperitoneal tumor growth and distant metastases in an animal model. We also examined the effect of combining laparotomy with laparoscopy and on infusing the peritoneal cavity with normal saline solution (NaCl), water, and sodium hypochlorite after laparoscopy on intraperitoneal tumor growth. Material and methods: Female Fischer rats were given MtLn3 adenocarcinoma cells by intraperitoneal injection to produce intraperitoneal tumor growth and by tail vein injection to produce lung metastases. A pneumoperitoneum was then induced to a pressure of 8 mm Hg with carbon dioxide (CO2), helium, or room air. After this, animals were allowed to either recover or underwent laparotomy or infusion of NaCl, water, or sodium hypochlorite before recovery, depending on the experiment. At 21 days all animals were killed and intraperitoneal tumor growth was assessed by counting the number of peritoneal and serosal nodules and by weighing the omental pad of tumor. Lung metastases were assessed by counting the number of metastases after fixation. Results: Laparoscopy caused a marked intraperitoneal dissemination of tumor with a median of 17 (10 to 20) peritoneal and serosal nodules for CO2, 19.5 (12.5 to 25) for helium, and 15.0 (9.5 to 17.7) for room air compared with 0 (0 to 1) for controls (P <.0001). The weight of omental tumor was also significantly increased (P <.02) in the CO2, helium, and room air groups. Infusion with NaCl, water, or sodium hypochlorite had no effect on tumor dissemination after laparoscopy. The combination of laparoscopy and laparotomy caused a significant reduction (P <.05) in the number of peritoneal nodules but had no significant effect on omental tumor growth. Laparoscopy also had no effect on the number of pulmonary metastases induced compared with controls. Conclusions: This study shows that laparoscopy promotes intraperitoneal dissemination of tumor. This effect is independent of the insufflating gas used and is not affected by use of a cytotoxic agent. The use of gasless laparoscopy should be encouraged by those undertaking curative laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:O'Dwyer, Professor Patrick and Oien, Professor Karin
Authors: Dorrance, H. R., Oien, K., and O'Dwyer, P. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cancer Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Surgery
Publisher:Elsevier Inc.
ISSN:0039-6060
ISSN (Online):1532-7361
First Published:First published in Surgery 126(1):35-40
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher policy

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