New insights into the bioavailability of red raspberry anthocyanins and ellagitannins

Ludwig, I. A., Mena, P., Calani, L., Borges, G., Pereira-Caro, G., Bresciani, L., Del Rio, D., Lean, M. E. J. and Crozier, A. (2015) New insights into the bioavailability of red raspberry anthocyanins and ellagitannins. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 89, pp. 758-769. (doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2015.10.400) (PMID:26475039)

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Abstract

Red raspberries, containing ellagitannins and cyanidin-based anthocyanins, were fed to volunteers and metabolites appearing in plasma and urine were analysed by UHPLC-MS. Anthocyanins were not absorbed to any extent with sub nmol/L concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and a cyanidin-O-glucuronide appearing transiently in plasma. Anthocyanins excreted in urine corresponded to 0.007% of intake. More substantial amounts of phase II metabolites of ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, along with 4′-hydroxyhippuric acid, potentially originating from pH-mediated degradation of cyanidin in the proximal gastrointestinal tract, appeared in urine and also plasma where peak concentrations were attained 1–1.5 h after raspberry intake. Excretion of 18 anthocyanin-derived metabolites corresponded to 15.0% of intake, a figure substantially higher than obtained in other anthocyanin feeding studies. Ellagitannins pass from the small to the large intestine where the colonic microbiota mediate their conversion to urolithins A and B which appeared in plasma and were excreted almost exclusively as sulfate and glucuronide metabolites. The urolithin metabolites persisted in the circulatory system and were excreted in urine for much longer periods of time than the anthocyanin metabolites although their overall urinary recovery was lower at 7.0% of intake. It is events originating in the proximal and distal gastrointestinal tract, and subsequent phase II metabolism, that play an important role in the bioavailability of both anthocyanins and ellagitannins and it is their metabolites which appear in the circulatory system, that are key to elucidating the mode of action(s) underlying the protective effects of these compounds on human health.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lean, Professor Michael
Authors: Ludwig, I. A., Mena, P., Calani, L., Borges, G., Pereira-Caro, G., Bresciani, L., Del Rio, D., Lean, M. E. J., and Crozier, A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Free Radical Biology and Medicine
Publisher:Elsevier B.V.
ISSN:0891-5849
ISSN (Online):1873-4596
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 Elsevier
First Published:First published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine 89:758-769
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.

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