Long-term individual foraging site fidelity—why some gannets don't change their spots

Wakefield, E., Cleasby, I., Bearhop, S., Bodey, T., Davies, R., Miller, P., Newton, J. , Votier, S. and Hamer, K. (2015) Long-term individual foraging site fidelity—why some gannets don't change their spots. Ecology, 96(11), pp. 3058-3074. (doi:10.1890/14-1300.1)

[img]
Preview
Text
113930.pdf - Accepted Version

259kB

Abstract

Many established models of animal foraging assume that individuals are ecologically equivalent. However, it is increasingly recognized that populations may comprise individuals who differ consistently in their diets and foraging behaviors. For example, recent studies have shown that individual foraging site fidelity (IFSF, when individuals consistently forage in only a small part of their population's home range) occurs in some colonial breeders. Short-term IFSF could result from animals using a win–stay, lose–shift foraging strategy. Alternatively, it may be a consequence of individual specialization. Pelagic seabirds are colonial central-place foragers, classically assumed to use flexible foraging strategies to target widely dispersed, spatiotemporally patchy prey. However, tracking has shown that IFSF occurs in many seabirds, although it is not known whether this persists across years. To test for long-term IFSF and to examine alternative hypotheses concerning its cause, we repeatedly tracked 55 Northern Gannets (Morus bassanus) from a large colony in the North Sea within and across three successive breeding seasons. Gannets foraged in neritic waters, predictably structured by tidal mixing and thermal stratification, but subject to stochastic, wind-induced overturning. Both within and across years, coarse to mesoscale (tens of kilometers) IFSF was significant but not absolute, and foraging birds departed the colony in individually consistent directions. Carbon stable isotope ratios in gannet blood tissues were repeatable within years and nitrogen ratios were also repeatable across years, suggesting long-term individual dietary specialization. Individuals were also consistent across years in habitat use with respect to relative sea surface temperature and in some dive metrics, yet none of these factors accounted for IFSF. Moreover, at the scale of weeks, IFSF did not decay over time and the magnitude of IFSF across years was similar to that within years, suggesting that IFSF is not primarily the result of win–stay, lose–shift foraging. Rather, we hypothesize that site familiarity, accrued early in life, causes IFSF by canalizing subsequent foraging decisions. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that IFSF may be common in colonial central-place foragers, with far-reaching consequences for our attempts to understand and conserve these animals in a rapidly changing environment.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Newton, Dr Jason and Wakefield, Dr Ewan
Authors: Wakefield, E., Cleasby, I., Bearhop, S., Bodey, T., Davies, R., Miller, P., Newton, J., Votier, S., and Hamer, K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Science and Engineering > Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre
Journal Name:Ecology
Publisher:Ecological Society of America
ISSN:0012-9658
ISSN (Online):1939-9170
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 Ecological Society of America
First Published:First published in Ecology 96(11):3058-3074
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.

University Staff: Request a correction | Enlighten Editors: Update this record