Sex differences in plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in clinical practice and in relation to body mass index and plasma glucose concentrations: a retrospective survey

Anderson, S. G., Livingston, M., Couchman, L., Smith, D. J. , Connolly, M., Miller, J., Flanagan, R. J. and Heald, A. H. (2015) Sex differences in plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations in clinical practice and in relation to body mass index and plasma glucose concentrations: a retrospective survey. Annals of General Psychiatry, 14, 39. (doi:10.1186/s12991-015-0075-x) (PMID:26583040) (PMCID:PMC4650861)

[img]
Preview
Text
113107.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

809kB

Abstract

Background Clozapine is widely prescribed and, although effective, can cause weight gain and dysglycemia. The dysmetabolic effects of clozapine are thought to be more prevalent in women with this gender on average attaining 17 % higher plasma clozapine concentrations than men. Methods We investigated the relationship between dose, body mass index (BMI), plasma glucose concentration, and plasma clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine (norclozapine) concentrations in 100 individuals with a severe enduring mental illness. Results Mean (10th/90th percentile) plasma clozapine concentrations were higher for women [0.49 (0.27–0.79) mg/L] compared with men [0.44 (0.26–0.70) mg/L] (F = 2.2; p = 0.035). There was no significant gender difference in the prescribed clozapine dose. BMI was significantly higher in women [mean (95 % CI) = 34.5 (26.0–45.3)] for females compared with 32.5 (25.2–41.0) for males. Overall, BMI increased by 0.7 kg/m 2 over a mean follow-up period of 210 days. A lower proportion, 41 % of women had a fasting blood glucose ≤6.0 mmol/L (<6.0 mmol/L is defined by the International Diabetes Federation as normal glucose handling), compared with 88 % of men (χ2  = 18.6, p < 0.0001). Conclusions We have shown that mean BMI and blood glucose concentrations are higher in women prescribed clozapine than in men. Women also tended to attain higher plasma clozapine concentrations than men. The higher BMI and blood glucose in women may relate to higher tissue exposure to clozapine, as a consequence of sex differences in drug metabolism.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Smith, Professor Daniel
Authors: Anderson, S. G., Livingston, M., Couchman, L., Smith, D. J., Connolly, M., Miller, J., Flanagan, R. J., and Heald, A. H.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Mental Health and Wellbeing
Journal Name:Annals of General Psychiatry
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1744-859X
ISSN (Online):1744-859X
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 Anderson et al.
First Published:First published in Annals of General Psychiatry 14:39
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

University Staff: Request a correction | Enlighten Editors: Update this record