Trypanosoma cruzi population dynamics in the Central Ecuadorian Coast

Costales, J. A., Jara-Palacios, M. A., Llewellyn, M. S. , Messenger, L. A., Ocaña-Mayorga, S., Villacís, A. G., Tibayrenc, M. and Grijalva, M. J. (2015) Trypanosoma cruzi population dynamics in the Central Ecuadorian Coast. Acta Tropica, 151, pp. 88-93. (doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.07.017) (PMID:26200787)

Costales, J. A., Jara-Palacios, M. A., Llewellyn, M. S. , Messenger, L. A., Ocaña-Mayorga, S., Villacís, A. G., Tibayrenc, M. and Grijalva, M. J. (2015) Trypanosoma cruzi population dynamics in the Central Ecuadorian Coast. Acta Tropica, 151, pp. 88-93. (doi:10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.07.017) (PMID:26200787)

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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.07.017

Abstract

Chagas disease is the most important parasitic disease in Latin America. The causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, displays high genetic diversity and circulates in complex transmission cycles among domestic, peridomestic and sylvatic environments. In Ecuador, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is known to be the major vector species implicated in T. cruzi transmission. However, across vast areas of Ecuador, little is known about T. cruzi genetic diversity in relation to different parasite transmission scenarios. Fifty-eight T. cruzi stocks from the central Ecuadorian coast, most of them derived from R. ecuadoriensis, were included in the study. All of them were genotyped as T. cruzi discrete typing unit I (DTU TcI). Analysis of 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci through neighbor joining and discriminant analysis of principal components yielded broadly congruent results and indicate genetic subdivision between sylvatic and peridomestic transmission cycles. However, both analyses also suggest that any barriers are imperfect and significant gene flow between parasite subpopulations in different habitats exists. Also consistent with moderate partition and residual gene flow between subpopulations, the fixation index (FST) was significant, but of low magnitude. Finally, the lack of private alleles in the domestic/peridomestic transmission cycle suggests the sylvatic strains constitute the ancestral population. The T. cruzi population in the central Ecuadorian coast shows moderate tendency to subdivision according to transmission cycle. However, connectivity between cycles exists and the sylvatic T. cruzi population harbored by R. ecuadoriensis vectors appears to constitute a source from which the parasite invades human domiciles and their surroundings in this region. We discuss the implications these findings have for the planning, implementation and evaluation of local Chagas disease control interventions.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Llewellyn, Dr Martin
Authors: Costales, J. A., Jara-Palacios, M. A., Llewellyn, M. S., Messenger, L. A., Ocaña-Mayorga, S., Villacís, A. G., Tibayrenc, M., and Grijalva, M. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
Journal Name:Acta Tropica
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0001-706X
ISSN (Online):1873-6254
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 The Authors
First Published:First published in Acta Tropica 151:88-93
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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