Plasmodium knowlesi transmission: integrating quantitative approaches from epidemiology and ecology to understand malaria as a zoonosis

Brock, P. M. , Fornace, K. M., Parmiter, M., Cox, J., Drakeley, C. J., Ferguson, H. M. and Kao, R. R. (2016) Plasmodium knowlesi transmission: integrating quantitative approaches from epidemiology and ecology to understand malaria as a zoonosis. Parasitology, 143(04), pp. 389-400. (doi:10.1017/S0031182015001821) (PMID:26817785) (PMCID:PMC4800714)

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Abstract

The public health threat posed by zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi appears to be growing: it is increasingly reported across South East Asia, and is the leading cause of malaria in Malaysian Borneo. Plasmodium knowlesi threatens progress towards malaria elimination as aspects of its transmission, such as spillover from wildlife reservoirs and reliance on outdoor-biting vectors, may limit the effectiveness of conventional methods of malaria control. The development of new quantitative approaches that address the ecological complexity of P. knowlesi, particularly through a focus on its primary reservoir hosts, will be required to control it. Here, we review what is known about P. knowlesi transmission, identify key knowledge gaps in the context of current approaches to transmission modelling, and discuss the integration of these approaches with clinical parasitology and geostatistical analysis. We highlight the need to incorporate the influences of fine-scale spatial variation, rapid changes to the landscape, and reservoir population and transmission dynamics. The proposed integrated approach would address the unique challenges posed by malaria as a zoonosis, aid the identification of transmission hotspots, provide insight into the mechanistic links between incidence and land use change and support the design of appropriate interventions.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This article was funded by UK research councils ESEI (a joint initiative between NERC, MRC, ESRC and BBSRC)
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Parmiter, Miss Mary and Kao, Professor Rowland and Ferguson, Professor Heather and Brock, Dr Patrick
Authors: Brock, P. M., Fornace, K. M., Parmiter, M., Cox, J., Drakeley, C. J., Ferguson, H. M., and Kao, R. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Health Economics and Health Technology Assessment
Journal Name:Parasitology
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
ISSN:0031-1820
ISSN (Online):1469-8161
Published Online:28 January 2016
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 The Authors
First Published:First published in Parasitology 143(04):389-400
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
538423Defining the biomedical, environmental and social risk factors for human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi (a.k.a. 'Monkeybar')Heather FergusonMedical Research Council (MRC)G1100796/1RI BIODIVERSITY ANIMAL HEALTH & COMPMED