Extraordinary Trypanosoma cruzi diversity within single mammalian reservoir hosts implies a mechanism of diversifying selection

Llewellyn, M. S. , Rivett-Carnac, J. B., Fitzpatrick, S., Lewis, M. D., Yeo, M., Gaunt, M. W. and Miles, M. A. (2011) Extraordinary Trypanosoma cruzi diversity within single mammalian reservoir hosts implies a mechanism of diversifying selection. International Journal for Parasitology, 41(6), pp. 609-614. (doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.12.004) (PMID:21232539) (PMCID:PMC3084450)

Llewellyn, M. S. , Rivett-Carnac, J. B., Fitzpatrick, S., Lewis, M. D., Yeo, M., Gaunt, M. W. and Miles, M. A. (2011) Extraordinary Trypanosoma cruzi diversity within single mammalian reservoir hosts implies a mechanism of diversifying selection. International Journal for Parasitology, 41(6), pp. 609-614. (doi:10.1016/j.ijpara.2010.12.004) (PMID:21232539) (PMCID:PMC3084450)

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Abstract

Trypanosoma cruzi is an evolutionarily ancient parasitic protozoan endemic to the Americas. Multiple genetic and phenotypic markers indicate that this parasite is highly diverse, with several divergent and discrete major genotypes reported. Infection multiclonality has been observed among numerous metazoan and unicellular endoparasitic species. However, few studies report the complexity of mixed infections within an individual host in any detail or consider their ecological and biological implications. Here we report extraordinary genetic diversity within single reservoir hosts of T. cruzi I using nine polymorphic microsatellite markers across 211 clones from eight mammals from three different sylvatic foci in South America. Forty-nine distinct multilocus genotypes were defined, with as many as 10 isolated from the same host. We discuss our data in the light of previous population genetic studies of this and related parasitic protozoa and contrast high levels of diversity within each host with the precarious nature of T. cruzi contaminative vectorial transmission. Finally, we propose that non-neutral processes could easily account for the diversity we observe and suggest a functional link with survival in the host.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Llewellyn, Dr Martin
Authors: Llewellyn, M. S., Rivett-Carnac, J. B., Fitzpatrick, S., Lewis, M. D., Yeo, M., Gaunt, M. W., and Miles, M. A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Journal Name:International Journal for Parasitology
ISSN:0020-7519
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 The Authors
First Published:First published in International Journal for Parasitology 41(6):609-614
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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