The definitions of three-dimensional landmarks on the human face: an interdisciplinary view

Katina, S. et al. (2016) The definitions of three-dimensional landmarks on the human face: an interdisciplinary view. Journal of Anatomy, 228(3), pp. 355-365. (doi: 10.1111/joa.12407) (PMID:26659272) (PMCID:PMC4832301)

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The analysis of shape is a key part of anatomical research and in the large majority of cases landmarks provide a standard starting point. However, while the technology of image capture has developed rapidly and in particular three-dimensional imaging is widely available, the definitions of anatomical landmarks remain rooted in their two-dimensional origins. In the important case of the human face, standard definitions often require careful orientation of the subject. This paper considers the definitions of facial landmarks from an interdisciplinary perspective, including biological and clinical motivations, issues associated with imaging and subsequent analysis, and the mathematical definition of surface shape using differential geometry. This last perspective provides a route to definitions of landmarks based on surface curvature, often making use of ridge and valley curves, which is genuinely three-dimensional and is independent of orientation. Specific definitions based on curvature are proposed. These are evaluated, along with traditional definitions, in a study that uses a hierarchical (random effects) model to estimate the error variation that is present at several different levels within the image capture process. The estimates of variation at these different levels are of interest in their own right but, in addition, evidence is provided that variation is reduced at the observer level when the new landmark definitions are used.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Ayoub, Professor Ashraf and Siebert, Dr Paul and Katina, Dr Stanislav and Bowman, Professor Adrian and Sukno, Dr Federico and Khambay, Dr Balvinder and Vittert, Dr Liberty
Authors: Katina, S., McNeil, K., Ayoub, A., Guilfoyle, B., Khambay, B., Siebert, J., Sukno, F., Rojas, M., Vittert, L., Waddington, J., Whelan, P. F., and Bowman, A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Dental School
College of Science and Engineering > School of Mathematics and Statistics > Statistics
Journal Name:Journal of Anatomy
ISSN (Online):1469-7580
Published Online:11 December 2015
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 The Authors
First Published:First published in Journal of Anatomy 228(3): 355-365
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
477842The analysis of three-dimensional facial dysmorphologyAdrian BowmanWellcome Trust (WELLCOME)086901/Z/08/ZM&S - STATISTICS