Topographical Bridging Between Bone and Nacre

Alakpa, E., Burgess, K., Chung, P., Dalby, M. and Cusack, M. (2015) Topographical Bridging Between Bone and Nacre. International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR), Stockholm, Sweden, 24-27th Jun 2015.

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Abstract

While vertebrates commandeer calcium phosphate for skeletal fabrication, invertebrates routinely make use of calcium carbonate to create hard tissue structures such as shells. This juxtaposition of phosphate and carbonate is defined as the “Bone-Shell Divide”. The discovery of fully integrated shell implants to replace lost teeth in Mayan skulls however, showed that there may be an exception to this divide. Further exploration in human jaw reconstructions and sheep femur implant, ascertained that invertebrate calcium carbonate CaCO3 shells have good osteogenic and osteointegrative properties. Here we investigate whether different topographies presented by the main CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite nacre or calcite prisms) found in shells produce topography-specific responses in vertebrate stem cells. By reproducing high fidelity patterned replicas of aragonite nacre and calcite prisms of the bivalve mollusc Pinctada maxima on polycaprolactone (PCL), we show that the shell nano/microtopography alone is a potent determinant in stimulating stem cell fate. There is a clear discrimination of MSC response to the topography of nacre and prisms. Exposure to nacre topography results in significant increase in osteocalcin and osteopontin production indicating osteogenesis. The topography of calcite prisms promotes only growth as indicated by significant increases in CD63 and STRO-1 expression suggestive of growth with retained multipotency. These findings form important bases for development of novel bone therapies and the potential to generate ample quantities of autologous stem cells in vitro for generative therapy and tissue engineering.

Item Type:Conference or Workshop Item
Status:Published
Refereed:No
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Alakpa, Miss Enateri and Chung, Mr Peter and Cusack, Professor Maggie and Burgess, Dr Karl and Dalby, Professor Matthew
Authors: Alakpa, E., Burgess, K., Chung, P., Dalby, M., and Cusack, M.
Subjects:Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH345 Biochemistry
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology
College of Science and Engineering > School of Geographical and Earth Sciences
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