Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks

Hasenkamp, W. and Barsalou, L. W. (2012) Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 38. (doi:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00038) (PMID:22403536) (PMCID:PMC3290768)

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Abstract

This study sought to examine the effect of meditation experience on brain networks underlying cognitive actions employed during contemplative practice. In a previous study, we proposed a basic model of naturalistic cognitive fluctuations that occur during the practice of focused attention meditation. This model specifies four intervals in a cognitive cycle: mind wandering (MW), awareness of MW, shifting of attention, and sustained attention. Using subjective input from experienced practitioners during meditation, we identified activity in salience network regions during awareness of MW and executive network regions during shifting and sustained attention. Brain regions associated with the default mode were active during MW. In the present study, we reasoned that repeated activation of attentional brain networks over years of practice may induce lasting functional connectivity changes within relevant circuits. To investigate this possibility, we created seeds representing the networks that were active during the four phases of the earlier study, and examined functional connectivity during the resting state in the same participants. Connectivity maps were then contrasted between participants with high vs. low meditation experience. Participants with more meditation experience exhibited increased connectivity within attentional networks, as well as between attentional regions and medial frontal regions. These neural relationships may be involved in the development of cognitive skills, such as maintaining attention and disengaging from distraction, that are often reported with meditation practice. Furthermore, because altered connectivity of brain regions in experienced meditators was observed in a non-meditative (resting) state, this may represent a transference of cognitive abilities “off the cushion” into daily life.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Barsalou, Professor Lawrence
Authors: Hasenkamp, W., and Barsalou, L. W.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Psychology
Journal Name:Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1662-5161
ISSN (Online):1662-5161
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2012 Hasenkamp and Barsalou
First Published:First published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:38
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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