Ocean acidification and temperature increase impacts mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection?

Fitzer, S. C. , Vittert, L., Bowman, A. , Kamenos, N. A. , Phoenix, V. R. and Cusack, M. (2015) Ocean acidification and temperature increase impacts mussel shell shape and thickness: problematic for protection? Ecology and Evolution, 5(21), pp. 4875-4884. (doi:10.1002/ece3.1756)

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Abstract

Ocean acidification threatens organisms that produce calcium carbonate shells by potentially generating an under-saturated carbonate environment. Resultant reduced calcification and growth, and subsequent dissolution of exoskeletons, would raise concerns over the ability of the shell to provide protection for the marine organism under ocean acidification and increased temperatures. We examined the impact of combined ocean acidification and temperature increase on shell formation of the economically important edible mussel Mytilus edulis. Shell growth and thickness along with a shell thickness index and shape analysis were determined. The ability of M. edulis to produce a functional protective shell after 9 months of experimental culture under ocean acidification and increasing temperatures (380, 550, 750, 1000 μatm pCO2, and 750, 1000 μatm pCO2 + 2°C) was assessed. Mussel shells grown under ocean acidification conditions displayed significant reductions in shell aragonite thickness, shell thickness index, and changes to shell shape (750, 1000 μatm pCO2) compared to those shells grown under ambient conditions (380 μatm pCO2). Ocean acidification resulted in rounder, flatter mussel shells with thinner aragonite layers likely to be more vulnerable to fracture under changing environments and predation. The changes in shape presented here could present a compensatory mechanism to enhance protection against predators and changing environments under ocean acidification when mussels are unable to grow thicker shells. Here, we present the first assessment of mussel shell shape to determine implications for functional protection under ocean acidification.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Kamenos, Dr Nicholas and Cusack, Professor Maggie and Bowman, Professor Adrian and Phoenix, Dr Vernon and Fitzer, Dr Susan and Vittert, Dr Liberty
Authors: Fitzer, S. C., Vittert, L., Bowman, A., Kamenos, N. A., Phoenix, V. R., and Cusack, M.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Geographical and Earth Sciences
College of Science and Engineering > School of Mathematics and Statistics > Statistics
Journal Name:Ecology and Evolution
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:2045-7758
ISSN (Online):2045-7758
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2015 The Authors
First Published:First published in Ecology and Evolution 5(21):4875–4884
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
Data DOI:10.5061/dryad.74ms0

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
563571Biomineralisation - protein and mineral response to ocean acidification.Maggie CusackLeverhulme Trust (LEVERHULME)RPG-042SCHOOL OF GEOGRAPHICAL & EARTH SCIENCES