Characterization of a second open reading frame in genome segment 10 of bluetongue virus

Stewart, M. et al. (2015) Characterization of a second open reading frame in genome segment 10 of bluetongue virus. Journal of General Virology, 96(11), pp. 3280-3293. (doi:10.1099/jgv.0.000267) (PMID:26290332) (PMCID:PMC4806581)

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Abstract

Viruses have often evolved overlapping reading frames in order to maximise their coding capacity. Until recently, the segmented double-stranded (ds) RNA genome of viruses of the Orbivirus genus was thought to be monocistronic but the identification of the bluetongue virus (BTV) NS4 protein changed this assumption. A small open reading frame (ORF) in segment 10, overlapping the NS3 ORF in the +1 position that is maintained in more than 300 strains of the 26 different BTV serotypes and in more of 200 strains of the phylogenetically related African horse sickness (AHSV). In BTV, this ORF (named S10-ORF2 in this study) encodes a putative protein of 50-59 amino acid residues in length and appears to be under a strong positive selection. HA- or GFP-tagged versions of S10-ORF2 expressed from transfected plasmids localised within the nucleoli of transfected cells unless a putative nucleolar localisation signal was mutated S10-ORF2 inhibited gene expression, but not RNA translation, in transient transfection reporter assays. In both mammalian and insect cells, BTV S10-ORF2 deletion mutants (BTV8ΔS10-ORF2) displayed similar replication kinetics to wild type virus. In vivo, S10-ORF2 deletion mutants were pathogenic in mouse models of disease. Although further evidence is required for S10-ORF2 expression during infection, the data presented provide an initial characterisation of this open reading frame.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Varela, Dr Maria Jose and Caporale, Dr Marco and Ratinier, Dr Maxime and Stewart, Dr Meredith and Palmarini, Professor Massimo and Hughes, Dr Joseph and Taggart, Ms Aislynn and Barry, Dr Gerald and Pinto, Miss Rute and Hardy, Ms Alexandra
Authors: Stewart, M., Hardy, A., Barry, G., Pinto, R. M., Caporale, M., Melzi, E., Hughes, J., Taggart, A., Janowicz, A., Varela, M. J., Ratinier, M., and Palmarini, M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of General Virology
Publisher:Society for General Microbiology
ISSN:0022-1317
ISSN (Online):1465-2099
Published Online:01 November 2015
Copyright Holders:© 2015 The Authors
First Published:First published in General Virology 96(11): 3280-3293
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
544122Phylogeography, transmission dynamics and pathogenesis of bluetongueMassimo PalmariniWellcome Trust (WELLCOME)092806/Z/10/ZMVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH