Vacuolar ATPase depletion affects mitochondrial ATPase function, kinetoplast dependency, and drug sensitivity in trypanosomes

Baker, N., Hamilton, G., Wilkes, J.M. , Hutchinson, S., Barrett, M.P. and Horn, D. (2015) Vacuolar ATPase depletion affects mitochondrial ATPase function, kinetoplast dependency, and drug sensitivity in trypanosomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(29), pp. 9112-9117. (doi:10.1073/pnas.1505411112) (PMID:2615048) (PMCID:PMC4517229)

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Abstract

Kinetoplastid parasites cause lethal diseases in humans and animals. The kinetoplast itself contains the mitochondrial genome, comprising a huge, complex DNA network that is also an important drug target. Isometamidium, for example, is a key veterinary drug that accumulates in the kinetoplast in African trypanosomes. Kinetoplast independence and isometamidium resistance are observed where certain mutations in the F1-γ-subunit of the two-sector F1Fo-ATP synthase allow for Fo-independent generation of a mitochondrial membrane potential. To further explore kinetoplast biology and drug resistance, we screened a genome-scale RNA interference library in African trypanosomes for isometamidium resistance mechanisms. Our screen identified 14 V-ATPase subunits and all 4 adaptin-3 subunits, implicating acidic compartment defects in resistance; V-ATPase acidifies lysosomes and related organelles, whereas adaptin-3 is responsible for trafficking among these organelles. Independent strains with depleted V-ATPase or adaptin-3 subunits were isometamidium resistant, and chemical inhibition of the V-ATPase phenocopied this effect. While drug accumulation in the kinetoplast continued after V-ATPase subunit depletion, acriflavine-induced kinetoplast loss was specifically tolerated in these cells and in cells depleted for adaptin-3 or endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex subunits, also identified in our screen. Consistent with kinetoplast dispensability, V-ATPase defective cells were oligomycin resistant, suggesting ATP synthase uncoupling and bypass of the normal Fo-A6-subunit requirement; this subunit is the only kinetoplast-encoded product ultimately required for viability in bloodstream-form trypanosomes. Thus, we describe 30 genes and 3 protein complexes associated with kinetoplast-dependent growth. Mutations affecting these genes could explain natural cases of dyskinetoplasty and multidrug resistance. Our results also reveal potentially conserved communication between the compartmentalized two-sector rotary ATPases.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Wilkes, Dr Jonathan and Hamilton, Dr Graham and Barrett, Professor Michael
Authors: Baker, N., Hamilton, G., Wilkes, J.M., Hutchinson, S., Barrett, M.P., and Horn, D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
ISSN:0027-8424
ISSN (Online):1091-6490

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