Skeletal muscle of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibits reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport and elevated levels of caveolin and flotillin

James, D.J., Cairns, F., Salt, I.P. , Murphy, G.J., Dominiczak, A.F., Connell, J.M.C. and Gould, G.W. (2001) Skeletal muscle of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibits reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport and elevated levels of caveolin and flotillin. Diabetes, 50(9), pp. 2148-2156. (doi:10.2337/diabetes.50.9.2148)

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Abstract

Insulin resistance is of major pathogenic importance in several common human disorders, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat is a model of human insulin resistance and is characterized by reduced insulin-mediated glucose disposal and defective fatty acid metabolism in isolated adipocytes (Collison et al. [Diabetes 49:2222–2226, 2000]). In this study, we have examined skeletal muscle and cultured skeletal muscle myoblasts for defects in insulin action in the male SHRSP rat model compared with the normotensive, insulin-sensitive control strain, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). We show that skeletal muscle from SHRSP animals exhibits a marked decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose transport compared with WKY animals (fold increase in response to insulin: 1.4 ± 0.15 in SHRSP, 2.29 ± 0.22 in WKY; n = 4, P = 0.02), but the stimulation of glucose transport in response to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase was similar between the two strains. Similar reductions in insulin-stimulated glucose transport were also evident in myoblast cultures from SHRSP compared with WKY cultures. These differences were not accounted for by a reduction in cellular GLUT4 content. Moreover, analysis of the levels and subcellular distribution of insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2, the p85α subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3′-kinase, and protein kinase B (PKB)/cAKT in skeletal muscle did not identify any differences between the two strains; the insulin-dependent activation of PKB/cAKT was not different between the two strains. However, the total cellular levels of caveolin and flotillin, proteins implicated in insulin signal transduction/compartmentalization, were markedly elevated in skeletal muscles from SHRSP compared with WKY animals. Increased cellular levels of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins syntaxin 4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-2 were also observed in the insulin-resistant SHRSP strain. Taken together, these data suggest that the insulin resistance observed in the SHRSP is manifest at the level of skeletal muscle, that muscle cell glucose transport exhibits a blunted response to insulin but unchanged responses to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, that alterations in key molecules in both GLUT4 trafficking and insulin signal compartmentalization may underlie these defects in insulin action, and that the insulin resistance of these muscles appears to be of genetic origin rather than a paracrine or autocrine effect, since the insulin resistance is also observed in cultured myoblasts over several passages.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Gould, Professor Gwyn and Dominiczak, Professor Anna and Salt, Dr Ian and Connell, Professor John
Authors: James, D.J., Cairns, F., Salt, I.P., Murphy, G.J., Dominiczak, A.F., Connell, J.M.C., and Gould, G.W.
Subjects:R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Molecular Cell and Systems Biology
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Diabetes
Publisher:American Diabetes Association
ISSN:0012-1797

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