"Ménage à Trois": the evolutionary interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and domestic sheep

Armezzani, A., Varela, M., Spencer, T., Palmarini, M. and Arnaud, F. (2014) "Ménage à Trois": the evolutionary interplay between JSRV, enJSRVs and domestic sheep. Viruses, 6(12), pp. 4926-4945. (doi:10.3390/v6124926)

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Abstract

Sheep betaretroviruses represent a fascinating model to study the complex evolutionary interplay between host and pathogen in natural settings. In infected sheep, the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) coexists with a variety of highly related endogenous JSRVs, referred to as enJSRVs. During evolution, some of them were co-opted by the host as they fulfilled important biological functions, including placental development and protection against related exogenous retroviruses. In particular, two enJSRV loci, enJS56A1 and enJSRV-20, were positively selected during sheep domestication due to their ability to interfere with the replication of related competent retroviruses. Interestingly, viruses escaping these transdominant enJSRVs have recently emerged, probably less than 200 years ago. Overall, these findings suggest that in sheep the process of endogenization is still ongoing and, therefore, the evolutionary interplay between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host has not yet reached an equilibrium.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Palmarini, Professor Massimo and Arnaud, Mr Frederick and Armezzani, Miss Alessia and Varela, Dr Mariana
Authors: Armezzani, A., Varela, M., Spencer, T., Palmarini, M., and Arnaud, F.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Viruses
Publisher:MDPI AG
ISSN:1999-4915
ISSN (Online):1999-4915
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2014 The Authors
First Published:First published in Viruses 6(12):4926-4945
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
412813Endogenous retroviruses and placental morphogenesisMassimo PalmariniNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)S070005MVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH