The role of cellular adhesion molecules in virus attachment and entry

Bhella, D. (2015) The role of cellular adhesion molecules in virus attachment and entry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370(1661), (doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0035) (PMID:25533093) (PMCID:PMC4275905)

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As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses must traverse the host-cell plasma membrane to initiate infection. This presents a formidable barrier, which they have evolved diverse strategies to overcome. Common to all entry pathways, however, is a mechanism of specific attachment to cell-surface macromolecules or ‘receptors’. Receptor usage frequently defines viral tropism, and consequently, the evolutionary changes in receptor specificity can lead to emergence of new strains exhibiting altered pathogenicity or host range. Several classes of molecules are exploited as receptors by diverse groups of viruses, including, for example, sialic acid moieties and integrins. In particular, many cell-adhesion molecules that belong to the immunoglobulin-like superfamily of proteins (IgSF CAMs) have been identified as viral receptors. Structural analysis of the interactions between viruses and IgSF CAM receptors has not shown binding to specific features, implying that the Ig-like fold may not be key. Both proteinaceous and enveloped viruses exploit these proteins, however, suggesting convergent evolution of this trait. Their use is surprising given the usually occluded position of CAMs on the cell surface, such as at tight junctions. Nonetheless, the reason for their widespread involvement in virus entry most probably originates in their functional rather than structural characteristics.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Bhella, Professor David
Authors: Bhella, D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
ISSN (Online):1471-2970
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2014 The Authors
First Published:First published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences 370(1663)
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
656541Structural studies of human viruses and host interactionsDavid BhellaMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_12014/7MVLS III - CENTRE FOR VIRUS RESEARCH